Competitive Intelligence Glossary
- the Language of Intelligence
This Glossary is published
as a tribute to a dear friend, Vernon Prior
who died on 15 September 2011 after a very
The Glossary was initially published on this website
with full participation and express written permission of
Vernon Prior - see side bar acknowledging SCIP
- www.scip.org (as the
UPDATED UK English
This edition is dated 21 January 2010.
Entries marked with an * have been added or modified since
21 October 2009.
is an objective and accurate condensation of a
Document, which can vary in length from a mere expansion or
Enrichment of the title to several paragraphs.
Abstracts can save a great deal of time and effort and will alert
you to newly published work that may otherwise be difficult to trace.
At the very least, an abstract will help you to decide whether or
not you need to read the original material.
abstract, Informative abstract, Synopsis.
Active disinformation, see
also commonly referred to by the term High technology, are those that:
require significant expertise and Research and
involve a high proportion of knowledge workers;
call for the intensive transfer and exchange of
result in high-value-added products.
See also: Knowledge-based
industries, Nanotechnology, Research and development,
After action reviews
presentations or discussions following an event or activity by those
involved with, or interested in, that event and whose purpose is to
learn from it. An AAR should
describe what was intended to happen, what was actually accomplished,
what mistakes were made, what lessons were learned, and how
participation in similar events might be improved in the future.
They may be recorded in a variety of media as a form of reference
for future use. Briefings
and AARs (also referred to as Debriefings) are excellent learning tools
and help to instil an information-sharing culture.
Their effectiveness depends to a great extent on accurately
identifying the most appropriate audience.
See also: Briefing, Debriefing, Intranet, Knowledge
management, Mind maps, Narrative, Report.
Algorithm is a process or set of rules for
calculating or solving problems, especially when using computers.
See also: Decision tree, Predictive analytics.
is a form of cooperation between two or more independent companies in
which they share risks and revenues with the aim of jointly improving
their Competitive advantage.
Alliances may include licensing, clusters, co-marketing
arrangements, shared R&D, joint ventures, franchising agreements,
outsourcing partnerships, and investments.
See also: Cluster, Joint project, Joint venture, Lead-firm
network, Networking, Production network, Research and development,
Service network, Strategic alliance.
Alternative outcomes analysis, see Scenario analysis.
occurs when a company that does not directly support a specific event
attempts to present itself as a marketing partner.
This is usually achieved through the use of misleading
advertising or promotional activities.
See also Disinformation.
Analysis involves the examination of
complex Information in order to ascertain what has happened (or
is about to happen), what it means, and what should be done about it.
The fundamental forms of analysis are: Deduction, Induction,
Pattern recognition, and Trend analysis.
See also: Cluster
profiling, Group think, Industry profiling, Intelligence
analysis, Predictive analytics, Scenario analysis, SWOT analysis,
is a colloquial expression that implies that one's decision-making
ability is severely impaired by exposure to overwhelming volumes of
Information; it is a symptom of Information fatigue syndrome.
See also: Information overload.
Annotation is a note, usually added to a
Bibliographic reference, by way of comment, explanation, or
description. It may also be
referred to as a Scope note when used in a
See also: Bibliography.
Application service provider
(ASP) manages and delivers application capabilities to multiple entities
from a data centre across a wide area network (WAN).
focuses on the use of existing scientific principles in order to solve a
particular problem or develop new products or applications.
See also: Basic research, Research,
Research and development,
Archie is a software tool for locating
files stored on anonymous File transfer protocol (FTP) sites;
knowledge of the exact file name or a sub-string is essential to
applies to a computer system that is able to operate in a manner similar
to that of human intelligence; that is, it can understand natural
language and is capable of solving problems, learning, adapting,
recognising, classifying, self-improvement, and reasoning.
Examples of its application include Expert systems,
Intelligent agents, Neural networks, and Robotics.
See also: Classify, Cognitive science, Predictive analytics.
Artilect is a neologism used to describe
a computer incorporating Artificial intelligence and which is
capable of programming and improving its own operations.
involves assessing a record or Document and deciding on the
appropriate terms to apply to it.
See also: Derived-term indexing, Enrichment, Index.
Assumption is that which is taken as being
true for the purpose of argument or action.
Asynchronous digital subscriber line (ADSL) permits high-speed data transmission on copper
Asynchronous transfer mode
(ATM) in telecommunications is a broadband technology that permits large
volumes of voice, image, text, or video data to be transmitted
Authentication is the process by which an
individual confirms his or her identity, usually by means of a
signature, an official Document, a personal identification number
(PIN), a Password, a digital certificate, or some other
acceptable means. See also:
Automatic indexing uses a program to select words or phrases to identify content.
It often employs several Indexing languages (such as a
Classification scheme, natural language, a Controlled vocabulary,
a Standard Industry Code, or a Country Code).
is a performance measurement system that, in addition to financial
measures, quantifies items that had previously been considered as
intangible assets, such as brand image, customers, reputation, Human
capital, Information, Innovation, and Corporate
culture. See also:
Corporate performance management, Intellectual property, Knowledge
assets, Knowledge management.
is a measure of the capacity of an information channel, that is, the
volume of Information that can be transmitted over a
communications link in a given time.
is work of a general nature, conducted in order to acquire Knowledge
of the underlying foundations of phenomena and observable facts
without any obvious practical application in view.
The results are usually published in the appropriate literature.
It is sometimes referred to as Fundamental research.
See also: Applied research, Research,
Research and development.
Benchmarking is a continuous, systematic
process for evaluating and comparing an organisation’s activities,
products, services, and work processes with those of organisations that
are recognised as representing best practices for the purposes of
performance improvement. A
secondary purpose is to reveal useful practices or ideas that may be
adopted or adapted with advantage.
See also: Reengineering, Reverse engineering.
is the Information necessary to identify a Document.
It normally includes: author; title; place of publication,
publisher, and date (in the case of a book); or author; title; name of
journal; volume/edition, page number(s), and date (in the case of an
article). Additional details
may be included for clarification.
See also: Annotation, Bibliography, Bibliometrics, Citation,
Citation index, Content management, Knowledge management, Metadata.
Bibliography is a list of documents (for
example, books, periodicals, articles, reports, and conference papers)
covering a specific subject or range of subjects, arranged in some
order, such as by subject, chronologically, or by author.
Its function is to identify, locate, or select material, and is
primarily compiled for use by scholars and librarians. The essential
content should include author, title, and keywords.
For purposes of location it should also incorporate edition,
date, and location. When
used for selection it should extend to include some form of
See also: Bibliographic reference, Bibliometrics, Citation, Document, Metadata,
Bibliometrics is the application of
statistical or mathematical methods to groups of bibliographic
references (for example, authorship, publications, literature use) for
comparison or comprehension.
See also: Bibliographic reference,
is the study of the neuro-active substances that play a crucial role in
intercellular Information transfer, and of the application of
such mechanisms to medicine and Information technology.
See also: Cybernetics.
direct means for an individual to share ideas, thoughts, opinions, and
Information concerning a particular topic with an audience, using
the Web as the medium. It
usually takes the form of a diary or narrative (in reverse chronological
order) initiated, and frequently updated, by the blogger.
Its main value lies in the establishment of networks and the
Social capital created as a result, and usually comprises ephemeral
Collaboration software, Corporate blog,
Unstructured information, Wiki,
World Wide Web.
refers to an algebraic system in which all values are reduced to TRUE or
FALSE (that is, 1 or 0 in the binary system), and thus forms the basis
for all electronic computing.
In the context of information retrieval, Boolean operators may be
used for manipulating search terms or to represent relationships between
entities. The operators most
frequently used are: AND (the logical product), OR (the logical sum),
and NOT (the logical difference).
The AND operator is used to retrieve documents that contain all
the chosen search terms, no matter where they appear in the document.
Increasing the number of terms helps to narrow the search.
The OR operator will retrieve documents that contain at least one
of the search terms. The use
of additional terms will broaden the search.
The NOT operator is used to exclude from the results any
documents which contain the specified term or terms; thus narrowing the
search. Search results may
be graphically represented by using a Venn diagram.
The term is derived from the British mathematician George Boole
(1815-1864), who devised the original system.
See also: Nesting, Precision, Proximity operators, Recall.
Bot (abbreviation of robot), see
Robots. See also:
Crawler, Intelligent agents, Search engine, Spider.
Boundary spanner, see
Brainstorming is a technique used by groups of
people to overcome the widespread tendency to overlook various obvious
options while solving problems or generating new ideas.
The key principle is to defer judgment, achieved by insistence on
first recording all suggested ideas.
See also: Lateral thinking, Mind Maps, Synectics.
Brief is either an abridged memory aid
for presenting arguments in a legal case, or a set of instructions
concerning a specific task, operation, or project.
See also: Briefing, Report.
Briefing is the oral or written
disclosure, before the event, of information or instructions concerning
an operation, project, or visit. The term is derived from military
practice. See also: After
action reviews, Debriefing, Intelligence briefing, Knowledge
continuity management, Mind Maps, Narrative, Report.
Browser is a client software program
that is used to identify and locate various kinds of Internet
resources. See also:
Cyberspace, World Wide Web.
Bulletin board system
(BBS) is a computerised meeting and announcement system that allows
people to carry on discussions, upload and download files, and record
observations and points of view without having to be simultaneously
connected to the system at any given time.
See also: Internet.
Burotics applies to the fusion of several
technologies that are mainly covered by the term Business technology.
It includes: data organisation; word processing; facsimile;
teletext and videotex; reproduction equipment; time registration; and
business management systems.
See also: Technological fusion, Telematics.
encompasses all those factors that affect a company's operations;
including customers, competitors, suppliers, distributors, industry
trends, substitutes, regulations, government activities, the economy,
demographics, social and cultural factors, innovations, and
It may also be referred to as Operating environment.
See also: Change
management, Competitive advantage, Competitive intelligence, Strategic inflection
is concerned with Information technology solutions for
transforming the output from large Data collections into
Intelligence; usually through the integration of sales, marketing,
servicing, and support operations.
It covers such activities as Customer relationship management,
Enterprise resource planning and Ecommerce using Data mining
techniques. Those people
involved in business intelligence tend to regard it as one aspect of
Systems based on business intelligence software were formerly known as
Executive information systems.
See also: Competitive intelligence, Competitor, Competitor
intelligence, Enterpise reporting, Intelligence analysis, Market
intelligence, Strategic early warning, Technological intelligence.
Business performance management, see
Corporate performance management.
incorporates a detailed study of the current and anticipated future
activities of an enterprise, and of all the factors (such as marketing,
development and production, and financial aspects) that will have a
bearing on those activities.
Since it is also the normal mechanism for attracting investment, it
should provide potential investors with the Information they need
in order to evaluate the risks and the potential returns on investment (RoI).
Often used as a generic term covering marketing, operational,
strategic, tactical, and other corporate plans.
See also: Planning, Venture capital.
Business process management (BPM) involves the use of appropriate tools and
techniques to design, analyse, and manage operational business processes
and, where possible, to improve those processes.
The term business process refers to repetitive activities
performed in the context of an organisation’s normal, everyday
operations. See also:
Business process outsourcing (BPO) is the long-term contractual delegation of
management and operational responsibility for an IT-enabled business
function, or process area, to an external services provider.
BPO covers three broad areas of activity: sales, marketing, and
customer care; administration and finance; operations processes (which
may include materials management, procurement, distribution, or
manufacturing). BPO may be
partial (management or operation only) or complete (management,
operation, and ownership).
Business process re-engineering (BPR), see Re-engineering.
refers to the integration of computer and communications technologies in
support of administrative applications and procedures within an
organisation. See also:
Business war gaming, see War gaming.
is a technique for deriving solutions to problems through a reasoning
process using Artificial intelligence to produce analogies with
similar problems where solutions are already known.
Caves and commons
is a colloquial term for the two main types of working area: caves
represent private areas used for concentrated thinking; commons refers
to open spaces designed to encourage discussion and the exchange of
Information and ideas.
See also: Work spaces, Working environment.
Census is an evaluation or enumeration
of each and every member or unit of population under study.
See also: Demography.
*Change management refers to the act of making a
rational and considered response to changes in the
See also: Competitive
intelligence, Environmental scanning Strategic inflection point,
Chat room, see
Cipher is a way of producing a
Document whose content may be understood by the intended recipient
but should be unintelligible to all others.
This is usually achieved by substituting computer-generated
random numbers or letters for the symbols making up the content of the
document. Since the same
sequence must be used to set up the system for both enciphering and
deciphering, no cipher system is entirely invulnerable.
See also: Code, Steganography.
Citation is a reference or footnote to a
Document which contains sufficient Information to identify
and locate the work to which it refers.
It usually takes the form of a Bibliographic reference.
See also: Annotation, Bibliography, Citation analysis.
is a specific division of Bibliometrics devoted to the study of
citations to and from documents.
See also: Document.
consists of a list of documents, usually arranged by author, with a list
against each entry of other documents that have cited the item
represented by the entry. It
is based on the principle that if the searcher is aware of a Document
that is relevant, then any document published at a later date that
cites the original is also likely to be relevant.
See also: Bibliography, Citation.
is an orderly arrangement of terms or classes - a class being any group
of entities sharing the same characteristic(s).
The major universal classification schemes are: Bliss, Colon,
Dewey Decimal, Library of Congress, and Universal Decimal.
See also: Classify, Cluster analysis, Index, Keyword,
Ontology, Taxonomy, Thesaurus.
refers to military or national secrets.
It is normally available to unqualified individuals only by means
of clandestine human or technical (imagery or signals) Intelligence.
See also: Classify.
Classify is to assemble or group items in
a rational and consistent manner.
It is based upon a preconceived plan, with the whole field of
interest divided into categories, classes, and sub-classes.
It also means to designate a Document as an official
secret or as not available for general disclosure.
See also: Classification scheme, Classified information,
Cluster analysis, Content management, Directory, Folksonomy,
Hierarchical classification, Index, Keyword, Knowledge management,
Ontology, Taxonomy, Thesaurus, Trade secret.
Clickstreaming enables a Web site to
monitor a user's movements while on site and when moving to other links
from that site.
(cctv) is a form of cable television accessible to a limited user group.
It is used especially in security systems and military
establishments, and for educational purposes.
Closed proprietary information, see Trade secret.
Cluster consists of several enterprises,
usually operating in close physical proximity, that have entered into a
formal, continuing association in order to pursue some activities in
common and derive maximum benefit from such synergy.
These shared activities may include: Research,
Development, and Innovation; Marketing, promotion,
labelling, and publication of Trade literature; imposing minimum
standards of quality; arranging the supply of equipment, components, or
materials; and sharing Information and its Analysis.
See also: Alliance, Cluster analysis, Joint venture, Lead-firm
network, Networking, Production network, Service network, Strategic
alliance, Value chain.
is based on the classification of
Data or objects into groups
that are related in some way.
It is commonly used in
Data mining, pattern recognition, image analysis and bioinformatics.
The practice is particularly useful in such activities as
Brainstorming, and the rational exploitation of
Mind maps, and
Search engines. See
also: Classification scheme,
Clustering is the linking together of many
small computers in order to create a more powerful machine.
See also: Grid computing.
Code is a pre-arranged system of
words, letters, figures, or symbols used to represent others for secrecy
or brevity. The Morse code,
for example, uses a sequence of dots and dashes to represent letters and
digits. See also: Cipher,
Corporate security, Password, Steganography.
is the study of thinking, knowing, and intellectual reaction; of the
process of comprehending, judging, remembering, and reasoning; and of
the acquisition, organisation, and uses of Knowledge.
See also: Artificial intelligence, Concept.
refers to a broad selection of software that is designed to enable
collaboration, cooperation, networking, and information-sharing
activities through computer networks.
Collaboration software may be designed to execute some or any
combination of the following:
See also: Blog, Community
of practice, Networking, Networks, Wiki.
Collaborative tagging, see
refers to the results gained from collaboration and the sharing of
information, as well as through competition, between many individuals;
it is the primary objective of
Although the term is applicable to many activities (including those of
certain bacteria, insects, and other animals), in this context it refers
to the mass behaviour of human beings.
It may be regarded as a form of
Networking, which has been
enabled by recent developments in
See also: Innovation,
Mociology, Social media,
Social network, Social network analysis, Technology transfer, Wiki.
Colloquium is an informal academic
Conference or group discussion.
See also: Seminar, Symposium, Workshop.
Combination, one of the four basic
Knowledge management processes, is a technique for combining items
of Explicit knowledge to form new explicit knowledge.
See also: Externalisation,
Internalisation, and Socialisation.
Commerce is a term that usually applies
to domestic trade; that is, conducted within a specific nation or
territory. See also:
Commercialism is the imposition of business
principles and full cost-accounting techniques on government
Commercialisation covers the range of activities
involved in producing and Marketing an Innovation; or is
the transformation of ideas into economic results.
See also: Diffusion, Technology transfer.
Communication is the process whereby
Knowledge is codified into Information by the transmitter,
passed through a medium to a receiver, who then reconverts that
information into new knowledge.
See also: Document, Knowledge continuity management, Knowledge creation.
Community of commitment, see
Community of practice.
Community of interest
is a network of people who are committed to the mutual exchange of ideas
and Information. The
focus tends to be on learning about areas of common interest, rather
than on producing practical results.
See also: Community of practice.
Community of practice
(CoP) is an informal, self-organising, interactive group that develops
in response to a specific, work-related activity, subject, practice, or
problem of mutual interest.
Membership is determined by participation and may transcend hierarchical
and organisational boundaries.
It provides a means for developing best practices or solutions to
problems through Communication, that is, through participation in
the exchange of Information and the creation of Knowledge.
A community of practice may use a variety of media for this
purpose, including face-to-face meetings, reports, email, instant
messaging, collaborative workspaces, and intranets.
Communities of practice can sometimes make a major contribution
to Social capital in organisations.
A CoP may sometime be called a Community of purpose or
commitment, and a large, geographically dispersed community is often
referred to as a Network of practice. See
also: Community of interest, Electronic mail, Groupware, Intranet,
Knowledge continuity management, Knowledge management, Networking,
Report, Seminar, Social network analysis, Team.
Community of purpose, see
Community of practice.
involves identifying superior performers and creating profiles that
specify their expertise, skills, personalities, values, and other
attributes as a basis for general organisational improvement.
See also: Expertise profiling, Knowledge map, Mindset.
Competitive refers to the circumstances
under which a company can maintain or expand its Market share
while making at least enough profit to induce it to stay in its existing
line of business. See also:
is gained by exploiting the unique blend of activities, assets,
attributes, market conditions, and relationships that differentiates an
organisation from its competitors.
These may include: access to natural resources, specific
location, skilled workforce, lower costs, better-quality products,
unique technologies, or exceptional customer service.
The fundamental strategies
involved are: cost leadership, differentiation, and focus (or
establishing a niche). See
also: Analysis, Business
environment, Business intelligence, Competitive, Competitive
Critical success factors,
is a systematic and ethical programme for gathering, analysing, and
managing any combination of Data, Information, and
Knowledge concerning the Business environment in which a
company operates that, when acted upon, will confer a significant
Competitive advantage or enable sound decisions to be made.
Its primary role is
Strategic early warning.
See also: Business intelligence, Change
Intelligence analysis, Strategic
Competitive monitoring is intended to gain early
warning through regular, frequent, and proactive monitoring and
and trends in your Business
changes may stimulate more intensive research or call for the use of more
sophisticated analytical techniques. When confined to competitors it is known as
Competitor activity tracking.
See also: Competitive
analysis, Strategic early warning.
Competitive simulation, see War gaming.
is any organisation that offers the same, a similar, or a substitute
product or service in the field of endeavour in which a company
Competitor activity tracking,
is a subdivision of Competitive
concerns the current and proposed business activities of competitors.
See also: Competitor, Strategic group analysis.
is the systematic Analysis of competitors in order to learn from
their strengths and exploit their weaknesses.
The main factors to be considered include:
background (including structure, ownership, subsidiaries,
profiles of key executives;
critical success factors;
business environment (major markets, competitors,
suppliers, and distributors);
assets and resources;
corporate and market strategy.
The knowledge acquired is used to gain and maintain a Competitive
advantage. See also:
Industry profiling, Intelligence analysis, SWOT analysis.
(CAD) involves the use of computers in the design and engineering
process. The term embraces
geometric modelling, Analysis, testing, and drafting.
(CAI) refers to the use of computers as teaching machines.
(CAM) involves the use of computer technology in the management,
control, and operation of the manufacturing process.
Computer-assisted interactive tutorial system is one in which a computer is programmed to perform the
role of teacher in (normally) a one-to-one tutorial.
See also: Distance learning.
Computer-assisted process planning
involves the use of computers to generate process plans showing the
sequence of operations and work stations required in manufacture.
refers to the use of computers to generate and display pictorial images.
See also: Visualisation.
is a term that applies when work stations are directly serviced by an
automated material-handling system and controlled by a computer.
The term encompasses: CAD/CAM, Robotics, Group
technology, Material requirements planning, Manufacturing resource
planning, Automated storage and retrieval systems, Computer-assisted
process planning, and Computer-aided parts programming.
See also: Computer-aided design, Computer-aided manufacturing.
Concept is any unit of thought,
generally expressed by a term, letter, or symbol.
It may be the mental representation of beings or things,
qualities, actions, locations, situations, or relations.
A concept may also arise from any combination of other concepts.
See also: Cognitive science, Insight, Knowledge, Semantic
networks, Topic maps.
Conference is a general session or
face-to-face group that relies on participation; often used to publicise
developments in a particular field of endeavour or discipline.
See also: Colloquium, Seminar, Symposium, Workshop.
refers to our tendency to seek evidence that will confirm our own
opinion, or ignore or devalue that which does not.
See also: Analysis, Intelligence analysis.
Conjecture is to form an opinion from
incomplete Information; to guess.
Contact management system
(CMS) allows organisations and individuals to record
relationships and interactions with customers and suppliers as well as
facilitating the development of comprehensive individual profiles.
See also: Content management, Knowledge
map, Social network, Social network analysis.
describes the technique of identifying keywords and descriptors from a
given Document in order to
facilitate Information retrieval.
See also: Descriptor, Keyword, Indexing.
Content management refers to the use of appropriate
technology and software to create, collect, manage, store, retrieve, and
publish content of any kind, including documents and
Unstructured information within an organisation in order to better
achieve the aims and goals of the enterprise.
The practice is sometimes inappropriately referred to as
Enterprise search. See also:
Document, Enterprise systems, Information architecture,
Information system, Information technology, Knowledge management.
Contestability is the extent to which the
provision of a good or service is open to alternative suppliers.
differs from Scenario planning in that it usually takes into
account only one probable future event.
See also: Planning, War gaming.
Controlled indexing language, see
is an Indexing language; that is, a standardised - yet dynamic -
set of terms and phrases authorised for use in an indexing system to
describe a subject area or Information domain.
Ideally, the terms that are used to represent subjects, and the
process whereby terms are assigned to particular documents, should be
both controlled and executed by one individual.
A controlled vocabulary can vary from a simple alphabetical list
of terms to a complex annotated Thesaurus.
It may also be known as a Controlled indexing language.
See also: Classification scheme, Classify, Content analysis,
Content management, Descriptor, Document, Folksonomy, Index, Keyword,
Knowledge management, Knowledge map, Natural indexing language,
Ontology, Taxonomy, Topic maps.
exists automatically on original literary, artistic, musical, or
dramatic works and gives protection against unlicensed use.
See also: Document,
is a Blog published by, or with the support of, an organisation
in order to further its aims, aspirations, or goals.
See also: Wiki.
is the set of values, beliefs, and relationships between individuals and
functions that guide the decisions of the company in order to achieve
its objectives. It results
in behaviour that has been learned within a group or transferred between
individuals over time. It
may also be referred to as Organisational culture.
See also: Group think, Learning,
Meme, Mission statement, Social capital, Vision statement.
is the framework of rules, relationships, systems, and processes within
and by which authority is exercised and controlled in corporations.
See also: Stakeholder.
Corporate intellectual assets, see Knowledge assets.
is a broad term covering Business intelligence and Competitive
intelligence as well as those elements that are inherent in global
operations, such as Corporate security and Counterintelligence.
see Knowledge assets.
Corporate performance management, also known as Business
performance management, is software that usually handles a number of
basic applications, such as: budget planning and forecasting, financial
consolidation, financial and statutory reporting, profitability
analysis, and Balanced scorecard.
It is frequently associated with some form of
resource planning software.
aims at protecting Knowledge assets, whether in the form of
physical entities or intellectual (tangible and intangible) property.
See also: Authentication, Counterintelligence, Intellectual
property, Knowledge management, Trade secret.
is Privatisation coupled with the requirement that the government
sector enterprise actively encourage competition from the private
sector. Government ministers
set policy objectives but are not involved in routine operations.
Counterintelligence refers to those activities that
are concerned with identifying and counteracting the threat to security
posed by hostile intelligence services or organisations, or by
individuals engaged in Espionage, sabotage, or subversion.
See also: Corporate security, Intellectual property, Knowledge
Countertrade is the exchange of goods or
services free of monetary consideration.
Crawler uses existing Internet
search engines to carry out automatic search and retrieval of selected
Information on behalf of a user.
It may also be known as Web crawler.
See also: Bot, Intelligent agents, Search engine, Spider.
comprise those organisations that engage in activities that have their
origin in individual creativity, skill, and talent, and that have the
potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and
exploitation of Intellectual property.
Creativity refers to the act of generating
new and useful ideas, or of re-evaluating or combining old ideas, so as
to develop new and useful perspectives in order to satisfy a need.
It is the capacity to select, re-arrange, combine, or synthesise
existing facts, ideas, images, or expertise in original ways.
See also: Brainstorming, Innovation, Invention, Lateral
thinking, Mind maps, Synectics.
or Key, success factors are the limited number of
activities that need to succeed and be effective if company aims are to
be achieved; or, are the few key areas of activity in which favourable
results are absolutely necessary for a particular manager to reach his
or her goals. Knowing the critical success factors helps to determine
information needs. See also:
Current awareness service makes available Knowledge
of what is being done in specific fields of endeavour through documents (such as notes, abstracts, clippings, email, Selective
dissemination of information, and Database records) or orally
(such as face-to-face or telephone conversations).
See also: Abstract,
Content management, Document, Electronic mail, Indicative
abstract, Informative abstract, Just-in-time knowledge.
Customer relationship management (CRM) is a software-based technique designed to select
and manage customers in order to maximise their long-term value to an
enterprise. The term covers
several aspects of customer relationships, such as: campaign management
systems, call centres, interactive voice response systems, e-commerce,
point-of-sale, and sales automation. The intention is to understand and
anticipate the needs, preferences, and buying habits of existing and
potential customers. To that
end, it usually employs some form of Data mining designed to
exploit large customer databases.
CRM is seen by some as the most important aspect of Knowledge
management. See also:
Database, Electronic commerce, Marketing, Value chain analysis.
Cybernetics refers to the science in which
communication and control systems in electronic and mechanical devices
are studied and compared with those in biological systems.
See also: Artificial intelligence, Bioinformation transfer.
Cyberspace is the notional environment in
which communication over computer networks occurs.
The term is currently used to describe the whole range of
Information resources available through such networks.
See also: Browser, Internet, Network, World-Wide Web.
Cypher, see Cipher.
Dashboard is a Visualisation tool
that provides graphical depictions of current key performance indicators
in order to enable faster response to changes in areas such as sales,
customer relations, performance assessments, and inventory levels.
*Data consist of unconnected facts,
numbers, names, codes, symbols, dates, words, and other items of that
nature that are out of context, and that only acquire meaning through
association. See also:
Business intelligence, Code, Competitive intelligence, Content
management, Information, Knowledge, Knowledge management.
involves the conversion of electrical impulses from process instruments
into digital Data to be recorded, stored, and periodically
is a focused collection of operational Data that is usually
confined to a specific aspect of a business.
A number of stand-alone data marts are often referred to as
Islands of data.
is the systematic computer Analysis, through the use of
statistical techniques (often employing Neural networks), of
large volumes of collected Data with the aim of revealing
previously unidentified patterns, trends, and relationships about
customers, products, services, and other activities that can lead to new
and profitable business Opportunities.
As with any Database, the essential aspects are to do with
accurate, up-to-date content, and with the means used for locating and
matching that content to user needs.
In other words, the level and quality of the associated
intellectual input is critical.
For these reasons the procedure is complex and protracted,
calling for specialised expertise and imagination.
Data base mining is also known as Database tomography, Discovery
informatics, or Knowledge discovery.
Examples of data mining applications include: identifying new
customers, predicting customer buying habits, confirming suitable loan
applicants, revealing fraud, indicating potentially rewarding
investments, managing equity portfolios, diagnosing medical problems,
managing inventory, and conducting certain aspects of Marketing.
See also: Content management, Data warehouse, Predictive analytics,
Text mining, Visualisation.
is a repository of operational Data from one or more sources
within an organisation, together with data derived from a variety of
external sources that have been arranged into meaningful Information,
and rendered easily accessible so as to allow for effective Analysis
or decision-making. See
also: Content management,
Data mining, Predictive analytics.
Database is a collection of interrelated
Data stored together without harmful or unnecessary redundancy
and structured in such a manner as to serve one or more applications.
The data are stored so that they are independent of programs that
use the data.
see Data mining.
Datasmog, see Information overload.
Debriefing is an alternative term for
After Action Reviews.
See also, Briefing, Knowledge management, Mind maps, Narrative.
Deception is the use of fraud, subterfuge,
or false or misleading information in order to conceal the truth or to
gain an advantage. See also:
Pretexting, Social engineering.
records decisions made, together with any assumptions made and the
reasoning employed. It is
used to derive lessons to assist future decision-making.
is a graphical representation of the Analysis of sequential
decisions and their likely outcomes.
See also: Algorithm,
Group think, Predictive analytics.
Deduction is based on theory and logic.
It involves reasoning from the general to the particular; drawing
specific conclusions from general premises; to infer.
For example, to ascribe to one member of a class the properties
generally observed in other members of that same class.
In general, scientific laws are established in this way.
From a number of observations, a generalisation (or law) is
drawn: the greater the number of observations, the more reliable the
conclusion is likely to be.
See also: Analysis, Induction, Intelligence analysis.
see Invisible Web.
refers to a form of training that
consists of focused, gruelling, repetitive practice in which the subject
continuously monitors his or her performance, and subsequently corrects,
experiments, and reacts to immediate and constant feedback, with the aim
of steady and consistent improvement.
It is generally accepted that this form of training calls for
approximately 10,000 hours of concentrated effort if one is to achieve
the optimum level of expertise.
The major lesson for business is that employees must be allowed
to push themselves to their limits instead of only doing what they are
paid to do. It also means
that they must receive rapid and instantaneous feedback on results.
The technique is based on research conducted by Anders Ericsson.
See also: Knowledge
Demography is the scientific study of human
communities, including size, composition, distribution, density,
movement, rate of growth or decline, and other characteristics, and of
the causes and consequences of changes in these factors.
See also: Census, Market intelligence, Market segmentation.
is where the Indexing terms are extracted directly from the
record or Document.
See also: Assigned-term indexing, Enrichment, Index.
Descriptor is a term attached to a
Document to permit its subsequent location and retrieval.
See also: Indexing.
Design refers to the ornamental and
visual aspects of an article.
See also: Intellectual property, Registered design.
see Video conferencing.
Development includes those technical
activities of a non-routine nature concerned with translating
Research findings or other scientific knowledge into products,
processes, materials, devices, or services.
See also: Applied research, Innovation, Research and development,
Dictionary is concerned primarily with
words; with their spelling, pronunciation, and meaning, in one or more
languages. Dictionaries may
apply to a specific subject field, or may be restricted to
abbreviations. See also:
Diffusion is the process whereby new
Knowledge, Know-how, and innovations spread from an
innovating organisation to other potential or actual users; or is the
spread of innovations into general use.
See also: Commercialisation, Creativity, Development,
Extension service, Innovation, Intellectual property, Networking, Social
network analysis, Technology transfer.
Digest is a condensed version of a
Document or topic, or of several related topics.
It is similar in many respects to an Informative abstract.
The term may also refer to a regular or occasional Synopsis
of current literature or news.
See also: Abstract, Report.
primarily a list of names and contact details of people
and organisations, together with descriptions of their projects,
activities, products, and expertise arranged in a variety of ways;
mainly in alphabetical, subject, or classified order.
Online directories provide lists of subject headings that are
arranged hierarchically, from broader to narrower terms, and are
compiled by human editors.
They are more suitable for browsing and easier to navigate than
Search engines. Be
aware, however, that online directory compilers usually rely on
descriptions submitted by site creators.
See also: Classify, Hierarchical classification, Index.
see Data mining.
Discussion group, see
Disinformation may be of two kinds.
Active disinformation is that which is promulgated with the
intention to deceive others in the expectation of benefit.
It is designed to change people's perceptions of reality and
persuade them to accept certain desired conclusions by the use of
exaggerated, false, or misleading Information.
Passive disinformation is when possibly detrimental information
is deliberately ignored or concealed.
See also: Ambush marketing, Information
warfare, Misinformation, Social engineering.
is that branch of education in which teachers and students are at remote
locations rather than in direct contact.
They communicate by correspondence, email, the Internet,
radio, television, cctv, computer-assisted interactive tutorials, video-Teleconferencing,
and so on. Distance learning
may also be referred to as Distance teaching.
See also: Closed-circuit television, Computer-assisted
interactive tutorial system, Educational technology, Electronic
Distance teaching, see
Document contains recorded human
Knowledge, in any format; or is Information structured in
such a way as to facilitate human comprehension.
Essential elements usually include: the identity of the
originator(s), one or more addressees, a title, the date of origin,
relevant information, and – where feasible – one or more signatories.
See also: Communication,
Explicit knowledge, File, Report, Surrogate.
Document management system is a computer-based technique for storing and retrieving
documents held in a wide variety of formats or in a number of geographic
locations. Many systems
allow for the control and recording of changes to documents, as well as
a measure of the volume of use.
A document management system may also be referred to as a Record
management system. See also:
Content management, Document.
is the unique identifier for an Internet site, having two or more
parts separated by dots.
Reading from left to right leads from the general to the specific.
Download is to retrieve Information
from the Internet.
Duopoly market is one in which the combined share of the top two companies is more that
73.9% of the market, and the leading company has less than 1.7 times the
Market share of the second company.
are variables in the economy that might affect the operations of a
company during the period covered by the strategic plan.
See also: Strategic planning.
refers to the provision of
government support (including infrastructure, communications facilities,
and Competitive intelligence)
in order to encourage local economic development.
Of these three, it has been shown that competitive intelligence
offers the greatest benefits.
Pertinent information is normally gathered and analysed by
government agencies or academic institutions, usually on behalf of
entrepreneurial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
This allows them to avoid the high costs of commercially
available competitive intelligence research services.
The intention is to encourage the growth of local firms rather
than to attract an influx of new businesses and industries (a practice
referred to as economic hunting).
Economic hunting, see
applies to the Development, application, and evaluation of
systems and techniques for improving the process of human learning.
See also: Distance learning, Knowledge creation.
covers a range of activities under which businesses and their customers
can carry out transactions electronically between computer systems.
This greatly reduces costs and improves efficiency.
The more popular term is e-commerce.
See also: Electronic commerce, Electronic funds
Electronic funds transfer
is the transfer of cash or credit from one account to another using
computers and telecommunications.
See also: Electronic commerce, Information technology.
refers to a system for sending messages by means of a computer system or
Network. It is more
popularly known as email.
can be a very efficient,
successful and low-risk means to acquire
Information that would not normally be revealed. It involves the use
of a subtle, non-threatening, and conversational approach, one with a
predetermined purpose. Elicitation relies upon the existence of
certain human foibles; for instance, that people generally:
wish to appear well-informed, especially about their profession;
are keen to be regarded as honest, trustworthy, and helpful;
welcome praise or sympathy;
dislike adverse criticism;
need to point out, and correct, errors.
See also: Humint, Networking, Soft information
is that Knowledge which is incorporated in a product although not
explicitly identified. It is
integral to equipment or materials; for example, the technological
knowledge contained in a modern household appliance, a vehicle, or a
recording device. Embodied
knowledge can often be deduced through Reverse engineering.
It is sometimes loosely referred to as Implicit knowledge.
See also: Knowledge.
Enrichment is the selection and use of
terms additional to those contained in the title, abstract, or text of a
Document in order to
facilitate or enhance its storage and retrieval.
See also: Assigned-term indexing, Indicative abstract,
Entanglement is an as yet unexplained
correlation between quantum particles that were once united.
Because they once functioned as part of a larger whole, they seem
to have acquired an inherent link between each other.
Changing the state of one qubit (quantum bit or particle)
instantaneously changes the state of the other, no matter how far away
from each other they are.
Not only does entanglement make instantaneous communication possible
but, because quantum particles can exist in more than one state
simultaneously, it also effectively doubles the capacity of any
communication channel. The
phenomenon will almost certainly lead to significant developments in
Enterprise content management,
see Content management.
Enterprise information management is sometimes used in place of the more common term,
Enterprise information portal (EIP) is a term used to describe both the home page of
an organisation’s Intranet and the intranet itself, together with
its content. Users typically
have access to the system from a personal starting page.
See also: Web site.
Enterprise performance management (EPM), see Enterprise resource planning (ERP).
refers to large-scale Report generation, usually achieved through
the use of so-called Business-intelligence software, and intended
to deliver Information by means of the Internet or an
Enterprise resource planning (ERP), also known as Professional services automation
(PSA), is a software-driven technique that is intended to optimise the
use and application of resources (project management) and manage
mission-critical processes (such as workflows, time and expense
reporting, collaboration, and Knowledge capture).
The software often incorporates
Corporate performance management
software. See also:
aim to overcome problems with incompatible Information storage
and retrieval systems by introducing a common format for databases
Proprietary processes need to be tailored to meet the needs of the
enterprise systems, necessitating management and structural change.
See also: Database.
is a person who has the ability to recognise Opportunities of
benefit to an enterprise, and the will and capacity to undertake
appropriate innovative action while accepting the associated risks.
See also: Innovation, Intrapreneur, Risk assessment,
involves continuous monitoring of the whole Business environment,
primarily in order to identify Opportunities and Threats
resulting from change. See
also: Change management,
Competitive intelligence, SWOT analysis.
Ergonomics is the study of the engineering
aspects of the relationship between human beings and their Working
Espionage is the use of illegal means
(spying) to collect Information, more particularly secret or
Offences may range from trespass and theft to treason.
See also: Counterintelligence, Knowledge assets, Trade secret.
Executive information systems (EIS) are now commonly referred to as Business
Exhaustivity is a measure of how completely
the concepts within a Document have been indexed.
The greater the proportion of concepts covered in the Index,
the greater the exhaustivity.
See also: Concept, Indexing.
is a sophisticated technique for converting Know-how and judgment
into mathematical formulae that can be used to solve complex puzzles and
help to predict the future.
involves systematic work using Applied or Basic research
or practical experience for the purpose of creating new, or improving
existing, materials, devices, products, processes, or services.
is a particular development of Artificial intelligence that helps
to solve problems or make decisions through the use of a store of
relevant Information (known as the Knowledge base, and
derived from one or more human experts), and a set of reasoning
techniques. They are
sometimes referred to as Knowledge-based systems.
See also: Knowledge engineering.
see Knowledge map.
Expertise location service,
see Knowledge map.
Expertise locator software,
available at various levels of sophistication, may be used in the
compilation of a Knowledge map.
is a technique for identifying and classifying personal Knowledge
and expertise for use in a Knowledge map.
It is usually achieved either through manual completion of
standard forms, or by inference from the content of documents produced
by the individuals concerned.
See also: Classify, Competency modelling, Document,
Selective dissemination of
consists of anything that can be codified, or expressed in words,
numbers, and other symbols (such as plans, marketing surveys, customer
lists, specifications, manuals, instructions for assembling components,
scientific formulae, graphics) and can, therefore, be easily
articulated, usually in the form of documents, processes, procedures,
products, and practices. See
also: Content management, Document, Know-how, Knowledge, Knowledge
management, Tacit knowledge.
Explode is a feature of some Indexing
systems that allows the user to expand a category of terms in a
hierarchy from general to specific to retrieve all documents allocated
to that specific term or to any of the narrower terms relating to it.
It differs from truncation in that the terms do not have to
include an identical string of characters in order to be retrieved.
Explode may also be known as Cascade.
Classification scheme, Classify, Controlled vocabulary, Document,
Hierarchical classification, Index, Notation, Ontology, Taxonomy,
Exploratory data analysis
is used to identify systemic relationships between variables when there
are no (or incomplete) a priori expectations as to the nature of
Exploratory data analysis is closely related to Data mining.
Extensible mark-up language
(XML) allows content producers to add Metadata to non-text items
(such as image, audio, or video files) and facilitates retrieval of
unstructured Information (an important aspect of Knowledge
management). See also:
provides for the direct delivery of advice to industry and business with
the aim of encouraging adoption of desirable, new or transferable
technologies, and the provision of relevant feedback to Research and
See also: Diffusion, Technology transfer.
Externalisation is the conversion of Tacit
knowledge to Explicit knowledge by means of language or
Visualisation. See also:
Combination, Internalisation, Knowledge management, Socialisation.
Extract is a verbatim portion of a
Document selected to represent the whole.
See also: Report.
Extranet is that portion of an organisation’s Intranet that is accessible
by selected individuals (for
example, collaborators, suppliers, partners, major customers).
is a business practice that optimises people, processes, assets, and the
Working environment to support the delivery of the organisation's
Fact is that which is known to have
occurred or to be true.
File is any organised and structured
collection of Information.
See also: Document.
File transfer protocol (FTP) is a very common method of moving files between
Internet sites; it offers a means to Login to another site
for the purpose of retrieving or sending files.
See also: File.
Finger is a software tool for locating
people on other Internet sites.
It is also sometimes used to give access to non-personal
Information, but the most common use is to verify that a person has
an account at a particular site.
Firewall applies to software designed to
protect internal computer networks against unauthorised access or
intentional hostile intrusion.
See also: Corporate security, Counterintelligence,
Five forces industry analysis helps to assess and manage the long-term attractiveness
of an industry. It is
designed to explain the relationship between the five dynamic forces
that affect an industry's performance; these are the:
intensity of competitive rivalry;
threat from new entrants;
threat from substitutes;
bargaining power of buyers;
bargaining power of suppliers.
See also: Analysis, Industry
profiling, Intelligence analysis.
Folksonomy is a user-generated
Taxonomy used to Classify
and more readily retrieve specific
Documents (including Web
pages, images, links, and other content).
A folksonomy should ideally be originated by, and easily
accessible to, its primary users.
Because they suffer from low levels of
Precision and Recall,
folksonomies are more often used in collaborative or social tagging,
social bookmarking, social classification, or social indexing, rather
than in a business setting. Nevertheless,
they may be useful in small, innovative teams or in emerging subject
areas. See also: Classification scheme, Content management,
Controlled vocabulary, Keyword, Knowledge management, Ontology,
see Scenario planning.
Freedom of information legislation requires that government agencies provide certain
Information to the public on request while, at the same time,
providing protection to commercial- in-confidence documents and other
material that is likely to compromise government activities.
Frequently asked questions
(FAQ) is a compilation of the most common questions, and the relevant
answers, on a particular subject.
It is designed to minimise the time devoted to answering commonly
see Basic research.
Fuzzy logic is a software program that operates at a high level of abstraction and
is able to handle conflicting demands.
Typical engineering applications may be found in automatic
transmission systems that are able to run more smoothly, and in subway
trains that are able to start and stop without jerking.
Other applications include Text mining and Case-based
reasoning. See also:
tend to collect and disseminate a wide variety of information in an
informal manner and play a vital role in group relations.
They are essential to the effective and efficient operation of
organisations. Gatekeepers may be
referred to as Boundary spanners.
may be either a Library gateway or a Portal.
Gisting is the art of concisely reducing
complex material to its absolute essence for intelligence reporting
purposes. See also:
Intelligence briefing, Report, Summary, Synopsis.
refers to the growth of interconnectivity that has been
taking place since man moved out of Africa
about 1.6 million years ago.
Such increased interconnectivity has resulted in greater economic,
political, and religious flows across cultures and countries.
More particularly, globalisation refers to the continuing
economic, technological, social, and political integration of the world
that followed World War II.
Major benefits have been its effect on world trade (which more than
doubled as a proportion of nominal world gross domestic product between
1960 and 2000) and significant reductions in the costs of shipping and
See also: International trade.
Glossary is a form of
Dictionary which usually lists jargon or technical terms confined to
a specific subject field, discipline, or profession.
See also: Standards.
material that is not formally published, such as institutional or
technical reports, working papers, business documents, conference
proceedings, or other documents not normally subject to editorial
control or peer review. It
may be widely available yet difficult to trace.
Trade literature comes under this broad heading.
See also: Document.
refers to the automated sharing and coordination of the collective
processing power of many widely scattered, robust computers that are not
normally centrally controlled, and that are subject to open standards.
Other terms employed in this context include: Autonomic
computing, Data-centre virtualisation, On-demand computing, Public
resource computing, and Utility computing.
See also: Clustering.
is a coding and classification technique that groups parts according to
geometric or manufacturing characteristics; used to facilitate
Computer-assisted process planning.
See also: Classify.
Group think refers to the situation where
the desire for agreement concerning a particular decision overrides a
realistic and rational assessment of the circumstances.
See also: Analysis,
see Collaboration software.
is quantitative in nature and generally consists of facts, statistics,
and other formally published Information.
See also: Document,
is a method of grouping in which terms are arranged from general to
specific; that is, in which the structure is initially arranged in broad
groups that are then successively subdivided into narrower groups.
See also: Classify, Directory, Explode.
(Hi-tech) is a popular term for Advanced technologies.
Holography is the creation of
three-dimensional images of objects using light produced by lasers.
see Web site.
is a form of Scenario analysis in that it is devoted to the
systematic search for potential developments over the long term, but
with the emphasis on those changes at the periphery of current thinking,
and primarily in the fields of science and Technology.
It tends to look at those key areas where science may hold the
promise of a solution, or offer potential applications and technologies
that have yet to be considered and articulated.
See also: Scenario planning.
is one that seeks to reduce the number of
layers of management and facilitate the development of a flatter, more
responsive and productive organisation.
Teams are allocated to, and made responsible for, specific
business processes. This
ensures that decisions are made more quickly and in a manner more
consistent with business objectives.
The technique is particularly useful in multinational
organisations, because it helps to link disparate and geographically
dispersed operations. See
also: Business process
Host is any computer on a Network
that acts as a repository for services available to other computers on
the network. It is quite
common to have one host machine provide several services, such as the
World Wide Web or Usenet.
is the combined ability, Knowledge, skills, expertise,
competencies, know-how, and innovativeness of an organisation’s members
to conduct a specific activity, operation, project, or task.
It also includes that organisation’s values, culture, and
philosophy. See also:
Competency modelling, Corporate culture, Expertise profiling,
Innovation, Intellectual capital, Knowledge map.
Humint is an abbreviation for human
Intelligence; that gathered by people directly from people, rather
than from published sources; hence Soft information.
It may be conducted face-to-face, by means of telephone or
facsimile, or online (email, chat rooms, intranets, and so on).
See also: Elicitation,
Hypertext is a File structure
applied to the complex, the changing, and the indeterminate.
It allows the user to make links to other documents using words
or phrases that cause those documents to be retrieved.
Sometimes described as a Semantic network, a hypertext
system has three major components:
a collection of items of Information;
a Semantic network linking related items of
tools for recording items of information, for creating
links, and for searching through the system.
See also: Document, Internet, Intranet, World-Wide Web.
HyperText markup language
(HTML) is the coding language for creating Hypertext documents
for use on the World Wide Web. It is very like a typesetting
code, where blocks of text are surrounded by codes that indicate how it
should appear. In addition,
HTML allows one to specify a block of text or word that is linked to
another File on the Internet.
See also: Code.
HyperText transfer protocol (HTTP) is a system for moving Hypertext
files across the Internet.
See also: File, Hypertext.
Icons are graphical representations of
computer functions or files that facilitate user recognition and
selection. See also: File.
is that which is not directly expressed; that is, the meaning is
inferred from the context and, therefore, relies on existing knowledge.
See also: Explicit
knowledge, Know-how, Knowledge, Tacit knowledge.
Index is a systematic guide to the
content of one or more documents arranged in some chosen order (usually
alphabetically), together with associated location elements (for
example, topic description and page numbers in a book, or File
titles and identification numbers in a filing system).
See also: Classification scheme, Classify, Content management,
Controlled vocabulary, Directory, Document, Knowledge management,
Ontology, Taxonomy, Thesaurus.
provides a means of labelling documents using freely selected keywords
or phrases (natural language) or authorised descriptors from a
Taxonomy or Thesaurus (Controlled vocabulary), or any
combination of those, together with some means of indicating its
location in the system. See
also: Assigned-term indexing, Content analysis, Derived-term
indexing, Descriptor, Document, Keyword, Ontology.
is one that describes the type of Document, the subjects covered,
and the way in which the facts are treated (that is, what it is about).
It is only intended to alert readers to the existence of a
Document of possible relevance and help them to decide whether
reference to the original is necessary.
Written in the present tense and passive voice, it should discuss
the article that describes the Research.
See also: Abstract,
Fact, Informative abstract, Report, Summary, Synopsis.
Individual profiling is usually confined to the study
of executives, senior managers, and specialists, either from a
competitor or as a precursor to recruitment.
The more significant elements to be examined may include:
past and present responsibilities;
significant projects or activities with which involved
(and decisions made);
whether or not financially responsible;
family or personal problems;
other peoples’ perceptions;
membership of influential groups, committees, or
See also: Competitor profiling,
Industry profiling, Intelligence analysis.
Induction is based on experience and
experimentation. It involves
reasoning from the particular to the general; for example, reaching a
conclusion by ascribing identical properties to all members of a class
of things by examining only a limited number of those things.
Any conclusion must be based on a particular set of observable
illustration by example;
enumeration of particulars and details;
elaboration by comparison and contrast;
any combination of these.
See also: Analysis, Classify, Deduction, Fact, Intelligence analysis.
Industry extension service, see Extension service.
Industry profiling provides an in-depth description
of an industry and its key players.
Significant elements to be considered might include:
Critical matters which may affect the industry (such as
industry threats and challenges, trends, developments, and new
technologies, and relevant legislation);
Existing and potential industry opportunities;
Industry, trade, and professional associations.
See also: Analysis, Competitor
profiling, Five forces industry analysis, Intelligence analysis
Infoglut, see Information overload.
Informatics is the systematic study of
Information and the application of Research methods to the
study of information
systems and services. It
deals primarily with the human aspects of information, such as its
quality and value as a resource.
Informatics may also be referred to as Information science.
of Data arranged in some sort of order (for instance, by
classification or rational presentation) so that they acquire meaning or
reveal associations between data items.
Information may also be defined as a physical surrogate of
Knowledge (language, for instance) used for communication.
See also: Business intelligence, Classify, Competitive
intelligence, Content management, Document, File, Intelligence.
see Information fatigue syndrome.
is concerned with the creation and organisation of a Web site.
See also: Content management, Metadata, Ontology,
Taxonomy, Thesaurus, Topic maps, Visualisation.
Information fatigue syndrome
applies to the symptoms associated with Information overload.
The syndrome may also be referred to as Information anxiety.
is the ability of individuals to recognise the need for specific
Information, and then to identify, locate, evaluate, organise,
present, and effectively apply the needed information.
Agreed competency standards are that an individual who is
information literate should be able to:
determine the nature and extent of needed information;
gather the needed information effectively, efficiently,
ethically, and legally;
critically evaluate information and its sources;
incorporate selected information into a knowledge base;
use information to accomplish a specific purpose;
understand the economic, legal, and social issues
surrounding the use of information;
is the means by which an organisation maximises the efficiency with
which it plans, collects, organises, uses, controls, stores,
disseminates, and disposes of its Information, and through which
it ensures that the value of that information is identified and
exploited to the maximum extent possible.
The aim has often been described as getting the right information
to the right person, in the right format and medium, at the right time.
It is sometimes referred to as: Enterprise information
management, Information resources management, or Business
intelligence, especially in connection with relevant software.
See also: Competitive intelligence,
Content management, Information literacy, Information scientist,
Information system, Knowledge management.
see Data mining.
refers to the existence of, and ease of access to, bewildering amounts
of Information, more than can be effectively absorbed or
processed by an individual.
It often results in an obsessive addiction to new information in an
attempt to clarify matters.
This may induce a continual state of distraction which leads to loss of
productivity and interrupts social activities.
It is also known as
Information fatigue syndrome and, more colloquially, as Infoglut or
Information resources management (IRM), see Information
see Informatics, Information scientist.
is one whose role is to assemble and evaluate Information (in
whatever form it happens to be and from whatever source it comes), to
interpret it, and to communicate it to whoever wants it in an
appropriately packaged form.
See also: Information management, Knowledge management.
refers to the applications and software that perform business functions
or support key processes.
Performance criteria concern the quality and functionality of the
software, its flexibility, and the speed and cost of development and
is the acquisition, processing, storage, and dissemination of vocal,
pictorial, textual, or numerical Information using computers and
telecommunications. It is
mainly concerned with the flow of information through networks.
Primary criteria for business performance are ease of use,
reliability, and responsiveness.
See also: Mociology, Network, Technological
consists of those actions intended to protect, exploit, corrupt, deny,
or destroy Information or information resources in order to
achieve a significant advantage, objective, or victory over a
Competitor. See also:
Disinformation, Social engineering.
is an abbreviated, objective, accurate condensation indicating work
done, assumptions made, methods used, observations recorded, results
obtained, and conclusions reached.
Usually applying to a scientific or technical Report or
paper, it would not normally incorporate either interpretation or
comment and is written in the active voice and past tense.
See also: Abstract,
Document, Indicative abstract, Summary, Synopsis.
Informed flexibility, see
is the application of mathematical and statistical techniques to a broad
range of social and organisational activities in an attempt to analyse
trends and developments in society and in business.
The term incorporates Bibliometrics.
See also: Market intelligence, Predictive analytics.
Infoviz is the colloquial expression for
Innovation, a major focus of Knowledge
management, incorporates all those activities necessary to adopt or
diffuse an existing Technology, or transform an idea or
Invention into a problem-solving or marketable device, process,
product, service, or technique. It usually occurs as a result of a
combination of Explicit and Tacit Knowledge.
Innovation is sometimes referred to as Knowledge conversion.
It has been shown that successful, innovative firms have certain
characteristics in common; these include:
excellent communications (particularly with the outside
a willingness to seek Information
from the most profitable sources and share it, both internally and
externally (through, say, joint ventures or licensing agreements);
the provision of appropriate rewards for identifying and
exploiting new ideas.
See also: Cluster,
Collective intelligence, Commercialisation, Communication,
Creativity, Development, Diffusion, Entrepreneur, Extension service,
Intellectual property, Intrapreneur, Joint venture, Knowledge
management, Learning organisation, Social network analysis, Technology
Insight refers to the creation of a new
mental model; it occurs when new information influences or changes an
existing Concept. See
see Intellectual capital, Knowledge assets.
See also: Balanced scorecard, Intellectual property.
Integrated services digital network (ISDN) is a digital telephone network that allows users
to transmit and receive computer-based Information and Data
of all types.
Intellectual assets, see
refers to the total Knowledge within an organisation that may be
converted into value, or used to produce a higher value asset.
The term embodies the knowledge and expertise of employees;
brands; customer information and relationships; contracts; internal
processes, methods, and technologies; and Intellectual property.
It equates, very approximately, to the difference between the
book value and the market value of a company.
Intellectual capital is also referred to as Intellectual assets,
Intangible assets, or Invisible assets.
See also: Content management, Human capital, Knowledge management,
refers to the definition and recording of a novel device, product,
process, or technique so that it may be bought, sold, or legally
protected. The main forms of
protection take the form of Copyright, licenses, patents,
registered designs, trademarks, and trade secrets.
It is that portion of Intellectual capital that can be
protected by law. See also:
Corporate security, Counterintelligence, Creative industries,
Design, Diffusion, Human capital, Innovation, Invention, Know-how,
Knowledge assets, Knowledge base, Patent, Patent specification,
Registered design, Trademark, Trade secret.
Intelligence is high-level, processed,
See also: Business intelligence, Competitive intelligence,
Intelligence analysis, Knowledge, Knowledge management, Market
intelligence, Synthesis, Technological intelligence,
is the systematic examination of any combination of relevant Data,
Information, and Knowledge for applicability or
significance, and the transformation of the results into actionable
Intelligence that will improve Planning and decision-making
or enable the development of strategies that offer a sustainable
The most profitable or beneficial Analysis calls for
Creativity and Insight;
which implies an ability to look beyond the obvious.
It is sometimes referred to as Strategic analysis.
See also: Business intelligence, Competitive intelligence,
Competitive monitoring, Content management, Knowledge management,
Strategic early warning, Strategy, Synthesis.
is an examination of an organisation's current level of Intelligence
activities with the objective of improving those operations in order to
gain, and maintain, a significant Competitive advantage.
identifying those people engaged in intelligence or
related operations, together with their levels of expertise;
locating collections of Information, as well as other relevant resources, concerning the
organisation’s Business environment;
establishing a set of Key intelligence topics or
ascertaining management intelligence needs.
may either be an oral or written presentation designed to provide
accurate, impartial, and timely Intelligence - together with an
indication of its implications and recommendations for action - in a
concise and easily assimilated form.
See also: Briefing, Debriefing, Gisting, Report.
may be either a separate entity or housed in a War room.
In contrast to the more usual in-house libraries, it should act
as a directory, not a repository.
In other words, it may contain such items as directories and
Professional association membership lists; a collection of major
competitors’ Trade literature; Competitor, Market,
or country files; Seminar and Conference brochures; lists
of Internet sources; and a Thesaurus or Taxonomy
together with a Glossary of
terms. See also:
are software programs that are capable of assisting their users by
performing predefined tasks on their behalf.
They may, for example, automatically, and simultaneously, monitor
a number of Web sites in order to identify, filter, and collect relevant
Information; and subsequently recognise patterns or other
significant combinations of information; report the results to the user;
and offer suggestions to solve a specific problem, draw inferences, or
determine appropriate actions.
See also: Artificial intelligence, Search engine, Spider, Web
is programmed to allocate a priority rating to, and the subsequent
handling of, Information on that net.
Internalisation involves the conversion of
Explicit knowledge to Tacit knowledge through a learning
process. See also:
Combination, Externalisation, Knowledge management, Socialisation.
involves exports to, and imports from, countries outside national
territorial limits. See
also: Commerce, Offset arrangements.
Internet is an international public
computer Network based on the popular network standard TCP/IPS (Transmission
control protocol/Internet protocol suite) with no single owner or
government involvement. It
provides infrastructure for Electronic mail, electronic bulletin
boards, File storage, Document transfer, Login to
remote computers, distributed processing of large programs, access to
the World Wide Web, and the handling of Multimedia
documents. See also:
Browser, Bulletin board system, Intranet, Network.
Internet governance is the development and
application by governments, the private sector, and civil society, in
their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules,
decision-making procedures, and programmes that shape the evolution and
use of the Internet.
See also: World Wide Web.
suite (IPS), see Transmission control protocol (TCP)
Internet relay chat
(IRC) is a huge, multi-user live chat facility.
Private channels may be created for multi-person Conference
Internet service provider
(ISP) is a company selling access to the Internet.
See also: Point-to-point protocol.
Intranet is any dedicated, privately
owned computer Network that is based on the same standards and
protocols (TCP/IP) as the Internet and which provides an
inexpensive publishing platform for its owner. Applications might
include Electronic mail, electronic access to company documents
(including, for example, company files or internal directories and
databases, debriefings or After action reviews, examples of best practice), and video
communications, with the aim being to facilitate collaboration and
information sharing. An
intranet usually offers access to the
Internet, suitably protected
to prevent unauthorised access from outside.
Database, Debriefing, Directory, Document, Enterprise information portal,
Groupware, Knowledge management, Learning organisation, Transmission
Intrapreneur is an Entrepreneur
operating within a corporate environment.
See also: Innovation.
Invention is the act of creating a novel
device, method, product, process, or technique.
See also: Creativity, Innovation, Intellectual property,
Patent, Patent specification Trade secret.
see Intellectual capital, Intellectual property, Knowledge assets.
is that portion (estimated to be between 60 and 80 per cent) of total
Web content that consists of material that is not accessible by standard
Search engines. It is
usually to be found embedded within secure sites, or consists of
archived material. Much of
the Information may, however, be accessed through a Library
gateway, a Vortal, or a fee-based Database service.
Islands of data, see Data
involves joint activities of a non-speculative nature.
involves two or more autonomous enterprises in operations or projects
that constitute some form of partnership of a speculative or commercial
nature. See also:
Alliance, Cluster, Lead-firm network, Networking, Production network,
Service network, Strategic alliance.
Journal is a Periodical
containing items relating to scholarly Research or intellectual
activity, or to the tools, methods and techniques employed therein.
is a concept for delivering Information to an individual at the
time it is needed to perform a specific task.
It may be initiated by means of a program that identifies the
contents of the documents currently being produced, or contributed to,
by the individual concerned.
See also: Current awareness
service, Document, Knowledge.
Just-in-time manufacturing describes an advanced manufacturing concept
designed to produce components for assembly only when they are required,
thus reducing the costs associated with holding large inventories of
parts, components, and raw materials.
See also: Predictive analytics.
Key intelligence topics (KITs) are those topics identified as being of greatest
significance to an organisation's senior executives, and which provide
purpose and direction for Competitive intelligence operations.
Key intelligence topics are invariably derived from a series of
interviews. They are then
grouped into appropriate categories and allocated a priority, usually by
the same, or a representative, group of people.
The basic categories are:
strategic decisions and actions (including the
development of strategic plans and strategies);
early-warning topics (for example, competitor
initiatives, new technology developments, and government actions);
descriptions of key players (including competitors,
suppliers, regulators, and potential partners).
See also: Competitor, Intelligence audit, Strategic planning.
Key success factors,
see Critical success factors.
Keyword is a substantive word in the
title of a Document or a record in a Database that can be
used to Classify or index content.
A keyword provides access to the item when it is used as a search
term. See also:
Classification scheme, Controlled vocabulary, Indexing,
*Know-how consists of accumulated
practical skills or professional experience that allow tasks to be
performed effectively but that is difficult to codify, express, or
articulate. See also:
Knowledge assets, Tacit knowledge, Trade secret.
*Knowledge is a blend of experience,
values, Information in context, and Insight that forms a
basis on which to build new experiences and information, or to achieve
specific goals. It refers to
the process of comprehending, comparing, judging, remembering, and
Knowledge is Data that has been organised (by classification and
rational presentation), synthesised (by selection, Analysis,
interpretation, adaptation, or compression), and made useful (by
presenting arguments, matching needs and problems, assessing advantages
and disadvantages, and so on).
Knowledge is the uniquely human capability of interpreting and
extracting meaning from Information.
It may be thought of as a structured (inter-related) set of
concepts in the mind. See
also: Classify, Cognitive science, Concept, Content
management, Educational technology, Embodied knowledge, Explicit
knowledge, Implicit knowledge, Innovation, Intellectual capital,
Intellectual property, Intelligence, Invention, Know-how, Knowledge
assets, Knowledge-based industries, Knowledge engineering,
Knowledge-intensive industries, Knowledge management, Knowledge map,
Meme, Tacit knowledge.
is someone who collects, stores, maintains, and retrieves the
Knowledge that others produce.
is a person who defines the needs of an individual or group, clarifies
search terms, and advises on the most appropriate sources.
is a technique in collaborative writing in which participants make
small, incremental changes to a Document in an effort to reach a
consensual expression of group aims.
See also: Refactoring.
is the process of rediscovering an organisation’s historical
Knowledge that may have otherwise become difficult to trace.
are bodies of Knowledge of value to an organization, including
previously unarticulated expertise and experience held by individuals.
They may take the form of documents, databases, individuals, or
groups of people, and include records of projects or activities,
knowledge maps, links to networks or communities of practice, reports,
standard operating procedures, patent specifications, licenses,
copyright material, taxonomies, glossaries of terms, and so on.
Knowledge assets are sometimes referred to as Corporate
intellectual assets, or Corporate memory.
See also: Community of practice, Copyright, Corporate
security, Counterintelligence, Database, Document, Intellectual
property, Know how, Knowledge management, Knowledge map, Network,
Patent, Patent specification, Report, Taxonomy.
in its traditional sense, refers to the Data and set of
rules forming the basis of an Expert system.
More recently it applies to the complete details of all
expertise, experience, and Knowledge within an organisation (that
is, its Intellectual capital and Knowledge assets).
See also: Human capital.
is a term used to describe a broad spectrum of enterprises that are
involved with Advanced technologies and are concerned with the
application of recent developments in many fields, including: advanced
materials, biochemistry, biotechnology, Burotics, genetics,
Information technology, instrumentation, Mechatronics,
medicine, microelectronics, microprocessors, Nanotechnology, and
optics. See also:
is an intermediary who connects individuals to Knowledge
providers. The position is
also known colloquially as an infomediary.
see War room.
Knowledge continuity management, also known more simply as
Continuity management, employs
Knowledge management tools and techniques in order to transfer
knowledge from departing employees to the organisation in a usable form.
Techniques include mentoring,
communities of practice, interviewing, introducing retainer agreements,
recording best practices, compiling training materials, and by ensuring
that departees are suitably rewarded.
See also: Communication,
Community of practice, Knowledge
creation, Learning organisation.
is the conversion of Data into meaningful Information that
allows the world to be understood in new ways.
At the individual level this is known as
Learning. See also:
Communication, Knowledge continuity management, Knowledge management,
Knowledge management system, Learning organisation, Mind maps.
see Data mining.
is based on the production, distribution, and use of Knowledge as
the main driver of growth, wealth creation, and employment across all
industries. It does not rely
solely on a few advanced-technology industries but is applicable to
traditional industries, such as mining and agriculture.
See also: Advanced technologies, Research and development.
see Knowledge reporter.
involves the planning, design, development, construction, and management
of expert systems. See also:
is an individual who possesses sufficient expertise in a specific domain
to be able to determine what Knowledge is most valuable and to be
able to synthesise it.
are those industries calling for high intellectual input; they include
Information technology, pharmaceuticals, medical and scientific
instruments, machine tools, automotive, shipbuilding, finance, and
is an integrated, systematic process for identifying, collecting,
storing, retrieving, and transforming Information and
Knowledge assets into Knowledge that is readily accessible in
order to improve the performance of the organisation.
The basic tenets of knowledge management are to enhance decision
making, foster innovation, build relationships, establish trust, share
information, and improve learning.
The means for doing so might include apprenticeship schemes and
mentoring programmes, briefings and debriefings, bulletin boards,
databases, documents, educational and training programmes, knowledge
maps, meetings, networks, and visits.
Performance improvements may be effected through enhanced
learning, problem solving, Strategic planning, and
decision-making. See also:
After action reviews, Briefing, Business intelligence,
Classify, Collective intelligence, Community of practice, Competitive
intelligence, Content management, Corporate culture, Corporate security,
Customer relationship management, Database, Debriefing, Diffusion,
Document, Enterprise resource planning, Index, Information literacy,
Information management, Information scientist, Innovation, Intelligence,
Invention, Know-how, Knowledge, Knowledge continuity management,
Knowledge creation, Knowledge management system, Knowledge map, Learning
organisation, Network, Networking, Patent, Patent specification, Social
network analysis, Taxonomy, Technology transfer, Thesaurus.
is a process and procedure for enabling
It usually incorporates a Search engine, Data-mining
facilities, and - since Knowledge is primarily embodied in people
- an expertise directory or location service (known as a Knowledge
map). Content may
include profiles of key people, industry trends, Market surveys,
descriptions of current and proposed projects or activities, solutions
to past problems, and discussion group facilities.
The term also implies the creation of a culture and
Information structure that promotes information sharing and
Innovation, and places considerable emphasis on learning and
personal development. See
also: Content management, Know-how,
Knowledge creation, Knowledge management.
may be either, or a combination of aspects of both, of the following:
a graphical display (either hierarchical, or in the form
of a Semantic network) of the core Knowledge, together
with the relationships between various aspects, of a subject or
a Directory (incorporating identity, location, and
subject expertise) of people possessing, or having access to, specific
knowledge or experience.
In the latter sense, it is a guide to, not a repository of, knowledge or
expertise. A critical
element is that those people whose details are incorporated must be
traceable through keywords describing their area of expertise or subject
referred to as an Expertise database or Expertise location service, it
is often compiled with the aid of Expertise locator software.
When properly compiled and
maintained, it may be by far the most valuable of all Knowledge
management tools. It is
often referred to by its more popular term, Yellow pages.
See also: Contact management system,
Content management, Expertise
profiling, Keyword, Mind maps, Ontology, Selective dissemination
of information, Social network, Social network analysis, Taxonomy,
see Data mining.
see Knowledge reporter.
is an individual who is capable of identifying and extracting
Knowledge from those who possess it, re-arranging it into a usable
form, and updating and editing it as necessary.
Also known as a Knowledge editor, Knowledge practitioner or
Knowledge transfer expert.
See also: Content management, Knowledge management.
Knowledge transfer expert, see
refers to a means of escaping from habitual mind patterns (or logical
sequential thinking) in order to solve problems or explore new ideas.
Techniques include deliberate and provocative challenging of
preconceptions, and rejection of yes/no thinking.
See also: Brainstorming, Creativity, Innovation,
is usually initiated by a large firm to ensure that its suppliers can
meet the quality, quantity, and timetable of delivery required by that
firm. The advantage is a
more reliable source of supply.
The suppliers benefit through gaining access to a guaranteed
Market and, usually, through improved management and production
techniques. See also:
Alliance, Cluster, Joint venture, Networking, Production network,
Service network, Strategic alliance.
refers to the acquisition, and transfer to long-term
memory, of experience, Information, and Knowledge, which
may subsequently be used for solving problems, making decisions, and
creating new knowledge .
Corporate culture, Meme, Knowledge creation.
is one that places considerable emphasis on developing strategies and
techniques for sharing Information and creating new Knowledge
in order to gain a competitive advantage.
Such organisations encourage trust and tend to be highly
supportive. They invariably
have a shared long-term vision, gather information from many sources
(and exchange that information freely), and welcome new ideas.
See also: Content
culture, Innovation, Knowledge continuity management, Knowledge
creation, Knowledge management, Learning, Meme, Narrative.
consists of a collection of databases and Information sources
(normally classified by subject) that have usually been assembled,
reviewed, and recommended by specialists.
See also: Database, Document.
is an Internet search technique that dispenses with Keyword
searching, employing instead a complicated Algorithm that is
based either on the number of Web pages linked to a specific site that
is relevant to the search requirements, or on the number of visits to a
site in a given time.
Local area network
(LAN) provides facilities for communication between computer users
within a specific location, up to a range of about ten kilometres (but
usually confined to one site or one building).
See also: Network.
see Knowledge map.
Login is either the account name used to gain access to a computer system or
the act of entering a computer system.
involves the use of sensors (for example tv, x-ray, ir, uv, laser scan,
ultrasonics) to receive signals representative of the image of a real
scene, coupled with computer systems or other signal-processing devices
to interpret the signals received for image content.
Magazine is a Periodical
containing popular, pertinent, or interesting articles, written and
illustrated in a less formal or technical manner than that found in a
is a system (usually automated) that allows people to send email to one
address, whereupon their message is copied and sent to all other
subscribers to that mailing list.
It facilitates discussion among people using different kinds of
email access. See also:
is an innovative concept or technique that is promoted as a new tool for
management progress and that rapidly diffuses among early adopters keen
to gain a competitive advantage.
When the concept is seen not to fulfil expectations, its use
diminishes equally quickly; its popularity usually extending over a
period of about five years.
Recent examples include: Quality circles, Total quality management,
and Business process reengineering.
See also: Diffusion, Re-engineering.
compare actual results achieved with budgeted forecast levels and thus
identify deviations from expected performance.
Operational managers should present the Information in
such a way as to encourage further Analysis and corrective
action. See also: Report.
Market is a group of people or
organisations that share a need for a particular product, and have the
willingness and ability to use it and pay for it.
deals with measuring and evaluating actual or potential sales of a
product or service. See
also: Market, Psychographics.
concerns the attitudes, opinions, behaviour, and needs of individuals
and organisations within the context of their economic, environmental,
social, and everyday activities.
The emphasis is on consumers – product, price, place, promotion.
See also: Business intelligence, Competitive intelligence,
Demography, Informetrics, Intelligence, Market, Marketing research,
see Marketing research.
is the process of dividing the Market into smaller groups that
share one or more characteristics.
See also: Classify, Demography.
is that proportion (per cent) of the total Market that is using a
particular organisation's product.
Markets may be defined as: Duopoly, Monopoly, Niche,
Oligopoly, Premium, or
Marketing is the management process
responsible for identifying, anticipating, and satisfying consumers'
requirements profitably. See
also: Customer relationship
management, Market, Value chain analysis.
Marketing information system is one designed to collect and exploit Information
concerning existing and potential clients.
See also: Market intelligence, Psychographics.
usually refers to a selected combination of promotion, place, price, and
product. See also: Target
is the study of methods of selling and promoting a product or service;
or gathering Information that will support a marketing campaign
(such as qualitative and quantitative Data concerning customer
preferences and behaviour).
See also: Market intelligence.
is the fusion of the technologies of electronics and mechanics.
Examples include numerically controlled machine tools, industrial
Robots, digital clocks, and electronic calculators.
See also: Technological fusion.
Mega-portal is increasingly being applied to
sites that once were referred to as portals, mainly because of the
widespread adoption of the term Portal for almost any site.
*Meme is an element of a culture, a
belief, or a system of behaviour that is passed from one individual to
another by non-genetic means; or, more simply, that which is passed on
by speech, gestures, rituals, or imitation.
The term was introduced by Richard Dawkins in “The Selfish Gene’
(1976). See also:
Corporate culture, Educational technology, Explicit knowledge,
Knowledge, Learning organisation, Tacit knowledge.
Memeplex is a group of memes passed on
together, for example, religions, political idealogies, or other belief
systems. See also: Meme.
refers to the manipulation of memes, as in advertising, education, or
psychotherapy. See also:
Metadata is Information (in the
form of a Metatag) that describes an internet document and facilitates
its retrieval. It is very similar to a Bibliographic reference,
but - where present - is often more extensive, and may include author,
title, affiliation, sponsor, Abstract, keywords, language,
publisher, date published, contact details, Classification scheme,
and so on; probably the most useful being keywords.
See also: Content management, Document, Enrichment, Folksonomy, Indexing,
Internet, Keyword, Knowledge management, Ontology, Taxonomy, Thesaurus,
Meta-indexes permit searches using several
search engines simultaneously through the medium of one search request.
Individual results are presented as a single list.
See also: Search engine.
is a Search engine that simultaneously submits a search query to
a number of other search engines and produces results that may be
manipulated in some way for the benefit of the searcher.
Metatag, see Metadata.
is a very small business employing fewer than five people.
Mind maps (a concept devised by Tony Buzan)
are a means of representing topics, ideas, projects, tasks, and similar
items in a visual format, similar in some ways to
Semantic networks, but with
connections usually extending radially from a central concept or theme.
The various elements (including words, images, numbers, and
colours) are arranged both informally and intuitively according to the
relative importance of the concepts involved.
Mind maps may be used for
After action reviews, aiding recall,
and Debriefing, clarifying
information, creative thinking, decision making, learning, organising
ideas, Planning, problem
solving, revising, summarising, and taking notes.
See also: Cognitive
science, Content management, Creativity, Knowledge creation, Knowledge
management, Knowledge map, Ontology, Taxonomy, Thesaurus, Topic maps,
Mindset is a state of mind that affects
an individual's attitude to events and ability to make decisions.
It is derived from that person's background, culture, education,
upbringing, religious beliefs, and so on.
A person's mindset may also be affected by conventional or
received wisdom, Corporate culture, and by the outcome of similar
or related events in the past.
See also: Competency modelling, Knowledge, Meme.
Misinformation is erroneous Information
that is not intended to deceive; it may result from ignorance.
See also: Disinformation.
defines the business in which a company competes, the company's
objectives, and the approach it will take to reach those objectives.
See also: Corporate culture, Strategy, Vision
Mociology is the study of the effects of
mobile information technologies on the development, structure, and
functioning of human society.
See also: Information technology.
Modelling is a technique used to assist in
decision-making by producing probable results based on combinations of
assumptions and ‘what if’ questions.
Modem (modulator-demodulator) is a
device for converting Data to sound signals, and vice-versa, for
transmission over telecommunications networks.
is one in which the leading company has at least 73.9% of the Market.
See also: Market share.
Multimedia refers to an interactive system
that integrates text, sound, and video.
Typical applications are business presentations, training and
education, databases, and electronic correspondence.
See also: Content
explores the implications of a situation in which diversified companies
compete against each other in several markets.
See also: Market.
(MUD) is a multi-user simulation environment in which users can create
documents with which others can interact, thus allowing a World to be
built gradually and collectively.
It is often referred to as a Dungeon.
See also: Document.
Nanotechnology is an advanced technology
involving the fabrication and use of devices so small that the
convenient unit of measurement is the nanometre (one thousand-millionth
of a meter); or, is the art of manipulating and exploiting the
properties of matter at a molecular level.
See also: Advanced technologies.
Narrative refers to a description of
activities, normally presented in the order in which they occurred.
It may be used to describe complicated matters, to explain the
outcome of events (such as decisions made or lessons learned), or to
bring about cultural change.
Techniques include After Action Reviews, best-practice databases,
Briefings, Debriefings, and
story telling. See also:
Database, Knowledge management, Learning organisation.
Natural indexing language is based on the language used in the Document
being indexed. Any terms
that appear in the document are candidates for Indexing.
See also: Content
management, Controlled vocabulary, Index, Ontology, Taxonomy,
Nesting is a technique for combining
several search statements (invariably by using a combination of Boolean
operators) through the use of parentheses.
For example: (management OR executive) AND (training OR
development). See also:
Boolean logic, Precision, Proximity operators, Recall, Venn diagram.
Network exists when two or more
computers are connected together.
Two or more networks constitute an Internet.
Network of practice
is the term that usually applies to a large, geographically dispersed
Community of practice.
see Social network analysis.
Networking is the informal exchange of
Information between individuals who have grouped together for some
common purpose. It may be
referred to as Social networking.
See also: Alliance, Cluster, Community of practice,
Elicitation, Humint, Joint venture, Knowledge map, Lead-firm network,
Production network, Professional associations, Service network, Social
network, Social network analysis, Strategic alliance, Usenet.
see Social network analysis.
are an attempt to simulate the human brain (by employing Artificial
intelligence software) for image analysis and pattern recognition,
in locating and matching relevant Information, and in assessing
risk. Their success depends
to a considerable extent on the volume of Data in the Database.
Expert human intervention is essential:
when setting up - more specifically for determining input
variables and structuring the data in a sensible and usable format
(usually the most time-consuming aspects of the technique);
for interpreting the results and identifying patterns,
trends, associations, and similarities;
in order to make appropriate decisions based on the
See also: Content management,
Data mining, Predictive analytics.
Newsgroup is the name for a discussion
group or chat room on Usenet.
is one in which a firm offers a specific product or service and does it
so well that no other firm will be tempted to enter that Market
(for instance, the market is too small, or it would be too expensive for
other companies to catch up).
See also: Market share.
Node is any single computer connected
to a Network.
to the individuals or groups
engaged in Networking.
See also: Social network analysis, Ties.
Notation is a set of symbols, abbreviations, or codes associated with a
Classification scheme, annotated Thesaurus, or Taxonomy,
and used to facilitate the arrangement of items so classified.
A notation enables the use of an Explode facility.
See also: Bibliography, Code, Ontology.
refer to obligatory technological activities of certain overseas
suppliers. See also:
is where the combined Market share of the top three companies is
greater than 73.9% of the total Market and where the combined
share of the second and third companies is greater than that of the
Ontology was originally a branch of
metaphysics dealing with the nature of being.
It is currently used to describe a vocabulary of terms and
associated definitions or rules covering a specific domain.
Thus an ontology may be regarded as a Database together
with associated Information about the categories or concepts that
exist in that domain, what properties they have, and how they relate to
each other. See also:
Classification scheme, Classify, Concept, Controlled vocabulary,
Hypertext, Index, Knowledge engineering, Knowledge map, Semantic
networks, Taxonomy, Thesaurus, Topic maps.
*Open proprietary information includes Information gathered through Reverse
engineering of legitimately acquired products and services, or
through legally conducted
Competitive intelligence operations.
Open source information is unclassified published Information. It
includes non-proprietary Grey literature as well as
Information published electronically (on the Internet, for
see Business environment.
Operational effectiveness involves conducting similar
activities to direct competitors, but being better in some way, such as
faster, of higher quality, or at reduced cost; in other words,
conforming to ‘best practice’.
See also: Competitive,
refers to organisational Planning covering the mid-term, that is,
from one to two years into the future.
Operating environment, see
see War room.
Opportunities are favourable events or
circumstances that may help a company to achieve its objectives or gain
a Competitive advantage.
See also: Entrepreneur, Intrapreneur, Opportunity analysis, Strategic early warning, SWOT
is the identification and evaluation of potential business
Opportunities coupled with an assessment of the organisation's
ability to exploit them. See
also: Entrepreneur, Intrapreneur.
use various combinations of lasers, holographs, and mass-storage media
for such applications as optical character recognition, improved image
clarity, and high-speed signal processing.
Optimisation is a scientific approach to
solving problems, the purpose of which is to improve on the subjective
aspects of decision-making; thus improving operational efficiency. It
calls for the mathematical formulation of the problem and an explicit
statement of the desired objectives.
The method consists of creating a mathematical model and using
computational means to help choose the best schedule of actions among
alternatives. See also:
Organisation network analysis,
see Social network analysis.
see Corporate culture.
is an assembly of interdependent elements and/or organised systems the
physical activities of which are controlled by the interchange of
Information so that they cooperate for a purpose.
was formulated by Italian statistician and economist, Vilfredo Pareto
(1848 – 1923). It states
that: In any series of elements to be controlled, a selected small
fraction in terms of number of elements almost always accounts for a
large fraction in terms of effect.
This was subsequently developed into the 80/20 rule and applied
to real-world situations in which there is a question of effectiveness
versus diminishing returns on effort, expense, or time.
(also known as the Rising pyramid) states that:
Work expands so as to fill the
time available for its completion.
This law was proposed by C Northcote Parkinson (1958).
Passive disinformation, see
Password is a Code used to gain
access to a secure system.
It may take the form of a word or phrase, or any combination of numbers
and letters (in both upper and lower case).
See also: Authentication, Corporate security.
Patent is a government authority to an
individual or organisation conferring a right or title to make, import,
use, offer for sale, or sell an Invention or discovery made in
the natural world. It gives
the patentee the right to take legal action against unauthorised used of
the invention (known as infringement) for a fixed period.
A patent cannot be granted for the following:
an aesthetic creation, such as a literary, dramatic, or
a computer program;
a discovery not made in the natural world;
a mathematical method;
a scheme or method for performing a mental act, playing a
game, or doing business;
a scientific theory;
the presentation of
See also: Copyright, Intellectual property, Patent
is a Document that describes an Invention.
See also: Intellectual property, Patent.
Periodical is a publication that is issued
at regular or stated intervals, such as a Journal or Magazine.
is the term given to recent developments in personal communications,
including mobile telephones, facsimile machines, and networks; the
ultimate aim being to provide each individual with one unique,
universally applicable contact number.
See also: Network.
Personalisation is a search engine information
retrieval technique in which results are based on the individual’s past
search behaviour. It is the
current equivalent of Selective dissemination of Information
Personality profiling, see
reveals the pervasive themes of a Database.
See also: Data mining.
discloses the relationships among pervasive themes in a Database.
See also: Data mining.
Phishing is the fraudulent use of email
to persuade recipients to disclose personal information, such as bank
account numbers and passwords.
See also: Corporate security, Electronic mail,
Planning is the process of synthesising a
goal or set of intentions into a sequence of steps, formalising those
steps so as to facilitate their implementation, and articulating the
anticipated consequences of each stage in the process.
Planning uses the left brain, involving logic, reasoning, and
rational thinking. See also:
Business plan, Mind maps, Operational planning, Scenario planning,
Strategic planning, Tactical planning.
(PPP) is a means whereby an individual computer communicates with an
Internet service provider
Portal is a Web site that acts
as a Gateway to the Internet by providing a broad and
diverse range of services, including directories, Search engines
or, links, email, reference tools, forums or chat facilities, access to
online shopping and banking, games, entertainment, and so on.
See also: Directory, Electronic mail, Mega-portal, Vortal.
provides a framework to assess relative Opportunities and to
enhance the return on investment (RoI) in a company's portfolio of
businesses. It is used to
optimise the allocation of available resources among strong and weak
products, brands, or business units.
See also: Predictive analytics.
is an abridged, impartial version of a Document designed to offer
clear, concise material for rapid, easy assimilation, usually to clarify
obscure or involved argument.
Comment, interpretation, implications, or opinion may also be
included, but should be identified as such.
See also: Report.
Precision refers to the number of relevant
items retrieved as a proportion (per cent) of the total number of
retrieved items in an Information collection.
See also: Boolean logic,
Nesting, Recall, Venn
Predictive analytics is the use of relevant software
for the Analysis of large data collections employing statistics,
Neural networks, decision trees, Visualisation,
pattern-matching algorithms, Data mining, Artificial
intelligence, and similar techniques (concerning, for example, the
demand for products or services, customer behaviour, business
transactions, and market dynamics) in order to suggest decisions for
Applications include: brand management, campaign enhancement, cost
reduction, customer support, fraud detection, investment, just-in-time
inventory control, process improvement, product or service
differentiation, and risk management.
See also: Algorithm, Data warehousing, Decision tree,
Informetrics, Just-in-time manufacturing, Portfolio analysis, Product
is one in which the market leader has more than 41.7% of the Market
and at least 1.7 times the share of the second company.
See also: Market share.
refers to a specific form of Deception in which the perpetrator
acquires personal (usually finance-related) information through false
pretences - that is, by making false statements, through
misrepresentation, or by fraud - and subsequently uses it for some form
of gain, or to avoid legal process.
See also: Social engineering.
Privatisation is the partial or total sale of
government business to the private sector.
See also: Corporatisation.
is that which makes a company's products different from those of its
competitors. See also:
Market, Predictive analytics.
is formed when two or more enterprises cooperate in the production of
goods by making the best use of their combined resources and skills,
including people, production capability, technology, and Information.
In this way the enterprises are able to achieve a level and range
of production necessary to enter new markets.
See also: Alliances, Cluster, Joint venture, Lead-firm
network, Market, Networking, Service network, Strategic alliance.
comprise groups of people concerned with a particular craft, trade,
profession, or industry. See
Professional services automation (PSA), see Enterprise resource planning (ERP).
Proposal is a
Document used to seek
approval for a specific course of action.
Its content should normally:
describe the aim or purpose, and the anticipated
outline the means of achievement;
nominate the individuals responsible for carrying it out;
list the needed resources;
note any constraints;
provide an accurate estimate of the cost and time to
see Trade secret.
is a technique for evaluating the effect a likely future event may have
upon the organisation. Results may be achieved by comparing the probable
reasons why an event may take place with the reasons why it did take
place - by assuming that the event has already occurred.
Alternatively, an ideal outcome may be proposed and, by working
backwards, the optimum means of achieving that outcome may be
extrapolated. See also:
Scenario analysis, Scenario planning.
are used in full-text searching to identify semantic or contextual
relationships between words in a
Document. They enable a
searcher to specify where one term in a document must be in relation to
another term: for instance, adjacent to, within a certain number of
words, or in the same sentence or paragraph.
See also: Boolean logic,
Nesting, Precision, Recall.
Psychographics refers to the attempt to
evaluate the purchasing intentions of consumers from a study of their
emotional and psychological responses to qualitative surveys.
The aim is to match standard demographic Data (such as
age, income, marital status, socio-economic group) to more amorphous
characteristics (such as values, interests, self-image).
See also: Market intelligence.
Push technology, currently referred to as Personalisation, is a colloquialism for
Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI).
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Quarterback technique applies to external events, such as trade shows
and conferences, in which a
Competitive intelligence team is managed to maximum effect through
the use of specific, predetermined information and analytical needs and
the optimum selection of known or anticipated information sources.
The activity calls for rapid reaction to changing circumstances,
considerable flexibility in handling resources, and frequent discussion
throughout the event.
Coordination may be best achieved through the use of an on-site
War room, together with
senior executive input.
See also: Trade show intelligence.
Recall refers to the number of relevant
items retrieved as a proportion (per cent) of the total number of
relevant items in an Information collection.
See also: Boolean logic,
Proximity operators, Venn diagram.
Record management system, see Document management system.
see Explicit knowledge.
Re-engineering is the radical redesign of
business processes and organisational structure in order to achieve
significant improvements in performance, such as productivity, cost
reduction, cycle time, and quality.
There are usually four major components:
increasing the emphasis on customer needs;
fundamental redesign of core processes in order to enable
reorganisation into cross-functional teams;
rationalisation of the relationships between human and
See also: Business process
management, Horizontal organisation, Management fad.
Refactoring applies to a form of editing in
collaborative writing in which a participant restructures, summarises,
or clarifies a collection of comments, annotations, and other writings
into a cohesive whole in order to optimise subsequent group discussion.
See also: Knowledge annealing.
provides protection for the visual appearance of a
Design, which includes the shape, configuration, pattern, and
ornamentation, but does not cover its feel, the materials from which it
is made, or its manner of operation.
See also: Intellectual property.
is the generic name for a Smart card that performs a range of
functions including both financial and personal services (such as travel
bookings, health records, passport details, frequent-flyer programmes,
transaction records, driver's license, and social security information).
See also: Stored-value card.
Report may be a Document
containing the findings of an investigation or study, or offering an
interpretation of facts and ideas, and usually incorporating
recommendations. It may give
an account of the activities of an organisation over a specific period,
or describe a process or operation. Very often it is produced in
response to stated terms of reference, with a known audience in mind.
Although producers of reports must examine essential evidence in
an impartial and disinterested manner, they may express personal opinion
- provided that it is a rational interpretation of Information
set out, or referred to, in the report, and that it is identified as
opinion. A report may also
take the form of an oral presentation.
See also: After action
reviews, Briefing, Debriefing, Digest, Extract, Gisting, Indicative
abstract, Informative abstract, Intelligence briefing, Management
reports, Precis, Review, Special intelligence briefing, Summary,
Request for comments
(RFC) is the name for the result and the process for creating a standard
on the Internet. New
standards are proposed and published on line as a Request for comment.
Research is any activity undertaken to
extend Knowledge. See
also: Basic research, Development, Research and development, Tactical
research, Strategic research.
Research and development
(R&D) refers to systematic investigation or experimentation involving
Innovation or technical risk, the outcome of which is either new
Knowledge (with or without a specific practical application) or new
or improved materials, products, devices, processes, or services.
See also: Advanced technologies, Applied research,
Development, Invention, Research.
Research impact assessment uses combinations of methods to ascertain the effect of
Research on a specific field of endeavour, on allied fields, on
related technologies or systems, and on operations.
The main approach may be qualitative (peer review),
semi-quantitative (retrospective studies), or quantitative (Bibliometrics).
Resource is any asset, organisational
process, capability, firm attribute, Knowledge, or Information
controlled by a firm that enables it to conceive of and implement
strategies that improve its efficiency and effectiveness.
See also: Intellectual property, Knowledge assets, Strategy.
refers to the process of systematically examining or dismantling a
competitor's product or service in order to reveal details of its design
and manufacture; such as materials employed, techniques used, level of
Technology, standard of quality, elegant solutions to problems,
and so on. See also:
Review is either a critical notice of a
specific Document or subject that may include interpretation,
offer perspective, or provide an overview and summary of progress or
developments in a given subject over a specified time.
See also: Report.
refers to the identification of factors in the
Business environment which may have the potential to affect the
profitability or existence of an organisation, together with an
evaluation of the costs and benefits of reducing the effects of such
risks. See also:
is the formulation and execution
of actions and strategies
designed to mitigate the effects of identified risks.
Robotics is the application of
Artificial intelligence techniques to the design and production of
Robots are re-programmable,
multifunctional manipulators designed to move materials, parts, tools,
or specialised devices through variable programmed motions for the
performance of a range of tasks.
The term, often abbreviated to Bot, is also applied to
programs that search the Web in order to gather specific Information
on behalf of a user. See
also: Crawler, Robotics, Search engine.
Rumour is a Report disseminated without known authority; an unverified
statement or assertion.
Sample is a subset of a population or a
group under study that is representative of the entire population.
See also: Market, Market intelligence, Marketing
is a systematic method of studying and articulating probable future
events that may affect the organisation or its operating environment.
It may, for instance, be used to: forecast trends in an industry;
identify probable Competitor strategies; evaluate the effect of
emerging technologies; assess a potential merger, acquisition, or
alliance. It is a useful,
long-term and highly objective analytical technique the timing of which
may not always be accurate.
Scenario analysis is also known as Alternative outcomes analysis or
‘What if?’ analysis. See
also: Business environment,
Risk assessment, Risk management, Scenario planning, Strategic
early warning, Strategy.
in order to formulate plans or prepare appropriate responses to probable
future trends and events.
The resulting plans usually cover a range from best case to worst case
probabilities. The technique
allows users to explore the implications of several alternative futures
and learn from mistakes without risking real-life failure.
More simply described as informed flexibility, it also
enables users to modify their strategic direction as events unfold.
It may also be referred to as Foresight planning.
Planning, Prospective hindsight, Risk
assessment, Risk management, Strategic early warning, Threats, War
Schema is a term sometimes used in
place of Taxonomy.
is a development, within or near an institute of higher education or
centre of excellence, that provides collocated advanced-technology or
knowledge-based enterprises with the opportunity for Technology
transfer from that institute, or between each other.
See also: Advanced technologies, Knowledge-based
industries, Technology park.
is the Analysis of the
structure and development of scholarly communication, Information-seeking
behaviour, and government policy as they relate to the sciences.
Scope note, see
are microprocessor-driven software programs capable of successfully
retrieving Information from computer networks or databases in
order to match the needs of searchers.
They automatically Index keywords in context, usually by
using Robots, then search those indexes for keywords that match
the user’s request.
Generally speaking, they are more suitable than directories for
Current developments may incorporate Visualisation techniques.
See also: Bot, Crawler, Database, Directory, Keyword,
Metasearch engine, Network, Spider.
Selective dissemination of information (SDI) is a personal Current awareness service.
It refers to a technique for directing new items of
Information, from whatever source, to those individuals whose
current interests in a particular subject are high, and who may be able
to take advantage of such information.
SDI is based on a user interest profile which may be compiled
using one of the following methods:
user-created (in which the profile is normally selected
by the user from a list of keywords, descriptors, or indexing terms);
system-generated (which analyses word frequencies in
relevant documents to identify patterns or areas of interest);
combined (which consists of a system-generated profile
modified by the user);
neural net (where the system is
trained using documents of interest to, and selected by, the user);
stereotype model (in which areas of interest shared by
many users are used to produce individual profiles);
rule-based filtering (which implements explicit
if-then rules to categorise
Push technology or Personalisation
are more recent terms for the
See also: Content management, Expertise profiling, Knowledge map, Social network
represent Knowledge in the form of concepts (known as nodes) and
links (that indicate the relationships between concepts).
A Concept is an abstract class or set consisting of items
or things that share common features or properties.
See also: Classify, Hypertext, Knowledge map, Node,
Ontology, Topic maps.
Seminar is a meeting that calls for a
high degree of participation; primarily used for training purposes.
The leader is both a content expert and a discussion leader. The
term may also be used about a group of experienced people who wish to
share their experiences. See
also: Colloquium, Community of practice, Conference,
is a computer, or software package, that provides a specific service to
client software running on other computers.
A single server machine may have several different server
packages, thus providing many different services to clients on the
occurs when enterprises combine to enhance their competitive
capabilities in supplying services.
The costs associated with Research and development,
training, Marketing, and initial exploration of export markets
are shared by members of the network.
See also: Alliance, Cluster, Joint venture, Lead-firm network,
Market, Networking, Production network, Strategic alliance.
Simple object access protocol (SOAP) is a successor to the TCP/IP protocol.
See also: Transmission control protocol.
see War room.
see SWOT analysis.
is generally taken to be a manufacturing enterprise with fewer than 100
employees, or a non-manufacturing (service or retail) enterprise with
fewer than 40 employees, in which owners retain independent ownership
and control and make key management decisions.
see Intelligent agents.
is a plastic card, similar to a credit card, containing one or more
integrated circuits for identification, Data storage, or
special-purpose processing, used to validate personal identification
numbers (PINs), authorise purchases, verify account balances, and store
personal records. In some
types, the memory may be updated every time the card is used.
See also: Relationship card, Stored-value card.
Social bookmarking, see
represents the active connections between people; including trust,
mutual understanding, shared values, and behaviours that bind together
the members of groups, networks, and communities and make cooperation
possible; or, comprises the norms and relations embedded in social
structures that enable people to coordinate action to achieve desired
goals. See also:
Corporate culture, Human capital, Meme, Networking, Structural
capital, Vision statement.
Social classification, see
is the use of deception, manipulation, or persuasion to obtain
information by illicit means.
See also: Disinformation, Information warfare, Pretexting.
Social indexing, see
Social media is a combination of sociology
and Information technology
that allows people to publish their own content and to establish
business or personal relationships. See also:
Social network, Social network analysis, Wiki.
is a map of relationships between individuals or
organisations. It comprises
nodes (usually individuals or organisations) and ties (the connections
between them), which may operate at many different levels, ranging from
families and close friends to sovereign nations.
Social networks often have a critical role to play in the
management of organisations, enabling problem-solving, decision-making,
collaboration, and information sharing, as well as facilitating trade
and commerce. They may be
used for conducting Social network analysis.
Contact management system,
Knowledge map, Networking, Social media, Usenet, Wiki.
Social network analysis
is the mapping and measuring of links and relationships between
organisations and individuals engaged in Networking or
collaborative activities. It
may reveal: specific expertise or influence; how people cooperate, and
with whom; who is overburdened with requests for assistance; and who
fails to collaborate at all.
Since it provides both visual and mathematical analyses, it is a very
powerful technique for evaluating mergers and acquisitions, joint
ventures, and inter-company relationships.
The terms Networking analysis, Network theory, or Organisation
network analysis may also be used.
See also: Alliance,
Analysis, Cluster, Community of Practice,
Diffusion, Innovation, Joint venture, Knowledge management,
Knowledge map, Networking, Nodes, Ties, Visualisation.
Social tagging, see
Socialisation is a means for acquiring
Tacit knowledge, usually by means of a shared learning experience.
See also: Combination, Externalisation, Internalisation,
is essentially qualitative in nature and consists of ideas, suggestions,
opinions, Rumour, gossip, feedback, anecdotes, speculation, and
tips. It may be derived from
direct observation or by scanning the media (newspapers, magazines, the
Internet, television, and radio) but, predominantly, through
Elicitation, interviews, or
other face-to-face activities.
It is highly regarded by senior executives and is particularly
valuable in Intelligence operations.
See also: Humint, Networking.
Sonification is the transformation of Data
and Information into sounds that are said to permit more rapid
identification of change.
Claimed advantages over Visualisation include that it is a more
natural - and largely underused - sense, it can portray large volumes of
information, it can alert observers to events outside the visual field,
it can holistically bring together various channels of information, and
may be more reliable than existing methods for controlling computers and
other technologies. Current
investigations in this field include its application in stock-broking,
aviation, and cancer surgery.
Spam is mass, unsolicited commercial
Electronic mail on the Internet.
Special intelligence briefing is a brief Report that identifies a specific
issue, summarises the key supporting analyses, and recommends one or
more courses of action. See
also: Analysis, Briefing, Intelligence briefing, Summary.
Specification is a set of technical or
operating requirements to be satisfied by a product, a material, or a
process. See also:
Spider is a program that searches the
Web in order to gather specific Information on behalf of a user.
See also: Bot, Crawler, Search engine.
Spying, see Espionage.
Spyware is any software application that
is generally installed without the knowledge or consent of the user, to
obtain, use, or interfere with personal information or resources,
content, or setting, for malicious or undesirable purposes.
Stakeholder is any individual or group that
has a direct interest, or some level of involvement, in the success of
an organisation and would be affected by the outcome of any decisions.
See also: Corporate governance.
Standard specifications, see
Standards are of two kinds: those used in
the measurement of physical units, and those (more properly referred to
as standard specifications) that describe quality, size, fitness for
purpose, shape, and performance of products or materials and, by
extension, methods or processes.
Another function of standards is to give precise meanings to the
terms used in science and technology – to define the terminology, in
other words. Standards are
normally referred to by serial number.
See also: Glossary, Specification.
Steganography is a technique for disguising or
hiding messages; it usually applies to the encryption of a message
contained within an audio or graphic file.
See: Code, Corporate security, Cipher.
Stemming, see Truncate.
is a form of Smart card that replaces cash in some circumstances
(for example, in payphones and computer terminals); some offer reload
facilities. See also:
is a collaborative agreement between two or more enterprises to mutually
commit expertise or resources in order to achieve common goals or
objectives, such as reducing costs, inhibiting competitors, gaining
entry to new markets, supplementing critical skills or expertise,
sharing the risks and costs of major projects, or acquiring access to
new technology. Such an
alliance may be between companies, or between a company and its
customers, its suppliers, or its competitors.
See also: Alliance, Cluster, Joint venture, Lead-firm network,
Market, Networking, Production network, Service network.
see Intelligence analysis.
Strategic business unit
is an enterprise or segment of an enterprise whose product line,
Market environment, sales force, competitors, and customers are
sufficiently different from the remainder of the company's activities
that it requires its own unique marketing strategy.
See also: Marketing.
Strategic early warning is the primary role of
operations. The aim is to
monitor the Business environment
for weak signals and early trends that may reveal potential changes
before they become obvious to others.
It calls for a knowledgeable, cross-functional team, approved and
encouraged by senior executives (to whom it reports), and which is able
to call on advice and support from relevant experts.
See also: Brainstorming, Business
intelligence, Competitive monitoring, Intelligence analysis,
Opportunities, Scenario analysis, Scenario planning, Threats.
Strategic group analysis
identifies groups or clusters of businesses that adopt similar
strategies and that tend to be affected by, and respond to, competitive
actions and external events in similar ways.
See also: Cluster,
Competitor intelligence, Strategy.
inflection point is anything which causes a business to make a
fundamental change in the way it operates.
Such change may be either subtle (such as the introduction of new
technologies; for instance, the PC and the Internet) or catastrophic
(such as a switch in customer preferences; for example, by the rapid
introduction of a much more effective substitute).
The most difficult aspects associated with strategic inflection
points lie in recognizing and adapting to them.
The term was originally coined by Andy Grove.
See also: Business environment, Change management, Competitive intelligence,
Strategic planning, Strategy.
is Knowledge about an organisation’s Business environment
that has implications for its long-term viability and success, usually
extending several years into the future.
is a top-down approach concerned with the long-term mission and
objectives of an organisation, the resources used in achieving those
objectives, and the policies and guidelines that govern the acquisition,
use, and disposition of those resources.
It must also take into account the Opportunities available
to the organisation, and an assessment of its ability to exploit those
opportunities with a view to gaining a distinct
See also: Competitive intelligence, Contingency planning,
Entrepreneur, Knowledge management, Planning, Resource, Scenario
planning, Strategic inflection point, Strategy, Tactical planning War
is mission-oriented and involves the application of established
scientific Knowledge and methods to broad social or economic
objectives, often extending over a considerable period.
See also: Innovation, Research, Tactical research.
Strategy is the timely adoption of
courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for carrying
out the basic long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise with the
emphasis on achieving something different or unique.
An organisation’s strategy may be represented visually by a
Strategy map; a powerful communication tool.
Strategy formulation involves the right brain, calling for
Creativity, as well as
the ability to deal with large volumes of information and to
visualise a broad perspective.
See also: Balanced scorecard, Competitive intelligence,
Strategic inflection point, Strategic planning, Tactics, Vision
see War gaming.
is the hardware, software, Databases, organisational structure,
Copyright, patents, trademarks, trade secrets, and other items of
that nature, that support the productivity of the Human capital.
See also: Intellectual property, Knowledge base, Patent,
Patent specifications, Trademark.
or guides, see Directory.
Summary is a brief restatement,
contained within the relevant
Document, of salient ideas, findings, and conclusions.
It is intended to assist with orientation of the reader, for
ready reference, or as a record.
See also: Gisting, Indicative abstract,
Informative abstract, Report, Synopsis.
Surrogate is a substitute to be used in
place of a Document.
For filing purposes, this may take the form of an index card bearing a
Bibliographic reference and the location of the document (for
example, a numbered File, a specific office or department, or a
named individual), or a Database record containing similar
details. See also:
Switched multi-megabit data service (SMDS) is a standard for very high-speed Data
is the evaluation of available Information concerning the
Business environment in order to identify internal strengths and
weaknesses, and external Threats and Opportunities.
SWOT analysis is also known as Situational analysis and, when
applied to competitors, as Competitor profiling.
See also: Intelligence analysis.
Symposium is a meeting convened for the
discussion of some particular subject.
It also refers to a collection of opinions expressed, or articles
contributed, by several persons on a given subject or topic.
See also: Colloquium, Conference, Seminar, Workshop.
Synectics is a body of Knowledge
and a series of techniques designed to induce imaginative
problem-solving or creative activities.
Techniques include deliberate efforts at right-brain thinking;
and positive, supportive behaviour.
See also: Brainstorming, Creativity, Lateral
Synopsis may be either:
a series of brief statements describing the content of a
Document or section of a document (although usually only found at
chapter headings in old novels and textbooks, they can be an effective
a concise Summary presenting the key ideas,
results, an Abstract,
illustrations, and references from a full-length article that has been
refereed in the normal manner; regarded by some as the ideal format for
See also: Gisting, Indicative abstract, Informative abstract,
*Synthesis is the process of combining
Data, Information, and existing Knowledge in order to
produce a connected whole, such as a hypothesis, theory, or system; a
Research Report; or the development of a Thesaurus or
See also: Analysis, Competitive intelligence, Intelligence,
is the product of interaction between people, or between people and
their environment. It refers
to Knowledge that is gained only experientially and, therefore,
cannot be readily articulated or explained to inexperienced parties (for
example, drawing, painting, writing, tying a knot, Planning,
individual will acquire tacit knowledge only by gathering Information,
relating it to existing knowledge, and accumulating experience; it
involves judgment, intuition, and common sense.
In groups, tacit knowledge exists in the practices and
relationships that develop through working together over time.
The major challenges are in its recognition, sharing, and
management. See also:
Content management, Corporate culture, Implicit knowledge,
Intellectual capital, Intellectual property, Know-how, Knowledge
is Knowledge about an organisation’s Business environment
that has implications for its viability and success in the immediate
future. It often concerns
such matters as Marketing, promotion, pricing and positioning.
is that aspect of organisational Planning which covers the
immediate future, that is, up to about one year from the present time.
See also: Business planning, Operational planning, Scenario
planning, Strategic planning.
involves the application of established scientific Knowledge and
methods to the short-term solution of practical problems.
See also: Research, Strategic research.
Tactics are the activities necessary for
implementation of the Strategy in order to gain advantage or
is a group of people for whom a specific Marketing mix is
created. See also: Market.
Taxonomy, in its original form, refers to
the science of the classification of living and extinct organisms.
In modern parlance, it applies to any system or software designed
to organise Information or Knowledge so that it may be
more easily stored, maintained, and retrieved.
It usually reflects the language and culture of a specific
enterprise or industry and acts as the authority for identifying
documents and the content of knowledge maps.
A taxonomy is often created by reference to several thesauri,
classification schemes, or indexes using a combination of human
intellectual effort and specialised software.
A taxonomy offers a means of classifying documents and other items of
information into hierarchical groups to make them easier to identify,
locate, and retrieve. It
consists of a structure (or Thesaurus), which embodies the terms
and their relationships, and a set of applications, which provide the
means to identify and locate the information.
See also: Annotation,
Classification scheme, Classify, Content management, Controlled
vocabulary, Corporate culture, Document, Folksonomy, Hierarchical
classification, Index, Indexing, Knowledge management, Knowledge map,
Metadata, Notation, Ontology, Topic maps.
Team is a group of people nominated
to carry out a specific task, and which usually disbands upon
individual’s role and level of participation is clearly defined.
Some or all of the members of a team may, however, subsequently
develop into a Community of practice.
Teams of seven or fewer are best suited to making considered
decisions by consensus.
refers to the whole, or any part, of the process from Invention,
through Innovation, Technology transfer, Diffusion, to
supercession, of machines, tools, products, processes, and techniques,
with the emphasis being on the sociological implications of innovation.
See also: Strategic
involves the merging of different areas of Technology; for
example, Information technology is the combination of computer
and telecommunication technologies.
See also: Burotics, Mechatronics, Telematics.
is a subdivision of Competitive
those technical activities that are concerned with translating
Research findings or other scientific Knowledge into devices,
materials, products, processes, or services.
See also: Intelligence.
Technology is the scientific study of the
practical or industrial arts, or the organisation of Knowledge
for the achievement of practical purposes.
See also: Advanced technologies.
aims to evaluate the social and environmental costs, the probable
detrimental effects, and the potential benefits of Technological
is used to analyse the potential of a Technology as compared to
the alternatives. It helps
users to determine the appropriate timing and level of investment in
current and developing technologies.
See also: Strategic
is a development, usually established under government auspices,
designed to accommodate enterprises engaged in the commercial
application of Advanced technologies.
It may offer ancillary services such as Research and
development facilities, Information resources, office
support, and access to Marketing expertise.
See also: Science park.
involves the transfer of scientific Knowledge towards practical
and useful applications; or the process whereby innovations find
applications in fields not originally envisaged for them.
See also: Applied
intelligence, Commercialisation, Communication, Creativity,
Development, Diffusion, Extension service, Innovation, Knowledge
management, Science park.
Teleconferencing refers to any system that
employs telecommunication links as an integral aspect of Conference
Telematics refers to the fusion of several
technologies that are mainly covered by the terms telecommunication,
computer engineering, Data
processing, data-transmission techniques, Burotics, and office
technology. See also:
is a Data broadcasting service in which pre-programmed sequences
of frames of data are broadcast cyclically, and a user, equipped with a
standard television receiver and a special decoder, selects the desired
frames for viewing.
Teleworking is the process of enabling work
to be conducted from any place at any time through the use of
is a software program for extracting essential concepts and clarifying
the meaning of a large volume of text.
See also: Concept, Data mining.
Thesaurus is a list of terms, or
authorised descriptors, used to provide a Controlled vocabulary
for Information storage and retrieval.
It shows hierarchical (broader, narrower), synonymous, and other
related terms, and often incorporates scope notes.
These latter clarify the meaning of the term or give guidance on
its use. A thesaurus may
also include a Notation
as an aid to Indexing.
A thesaurus is a controlled and dynamic vocabulary of semantically and
generically related terms that cover a specific domain of Knowledge.
It represents a richer and much more powerful tool than does a
Taxonomy for descriptive
purposes. See also:
scheme, Classify, Content management, Descriptor, Folksonomy,
Hierarchical classification, Index, Knowledge management, Metadata,
Ontology, Topic maps.
Threats are unfavourable events or
circumstances that may hinder the company in the achievement of its
objectives. See also:
Strategic early warning, SWOT analysis.
refers to the relationships between individuals and groups engaged in
Networking. See also:
Nodes, Social network analysis.
are designed to facilitate the organisation and navigation
of large information collections through the use of an open
(non-controlled) vocabulary using topics, associations, and occurrences.
A topic may represent any
Concept, including subject, person, place, organisation, and event.
Associations represent the relationships between those concepts;
and occurrences represent relevant information resources. Although
sometimes used when referring to an Ontology, Taxonomy, or
Thesaurus, it may, in fact, incorporate any combination of these.
See also: Content management, Controlled
vocabulary, Knowledge map, Metadata, Mind maps, Semantic networks,
Total quality management (TQM) is a management philosophy embracing all
activities through which the needs and expectations of the customer and
the community, and the objectives of the organisation, are satisfied in
the most efficient and cost-effective way by maximising the potential of
all employees in a continuous drive for improvement.
See also: Management fad.
See also Commerce.
is produced by individual companies, primarily to instruct or inform
existing and potential buyers.
It includes sales pamphlets, advertising brochures, promotional
material, product or parts catalogues, maintenance or instruction
manuals, handbooks, user guides, data sheets, and certain in-house
journals or newsletters. See
also: Grey literature.
is Information (including a formula, pattern, compilation,
program, device, method, technique, or process) that derives independent
economic value, actual or potential, from not being generally known to,
and not being readily ascertainable by proper means by, other persons
who can obtain economic value from its disclosure or use, and is subject
to efforts, that are reasonable under the circumstances, to maintain its
Or, more simply, a trade secret is anything which:
confers a competitive advantage on its owner;
is subject to reasonable measures to prevent its
is not generally known in the industry or business in
which it is used or practiced.
Generally speaking, to legally qualify as a trade secret, the
information supporting a new product, process, or plan must be:
documented or readily identifiable;
disclosed on a need-to-know basis;
known to be a secret.
See also: Corporate security, Intellectual property, Know-how,
Trade show intelligence
is the systematic
collection and Analysis of exploitable Information, from
any source and in any format or medium, at any event where products and
services, or information about them, are openly displayed; as well as
prevention of its collection by others.
Trademark is a word, name, device, sign or
symbol used by manufacturers to distinguish their products from similar
products made by others. See
also: Intellectual property.
Transmission control protocol/Internet protocol
suite (TCP/IPS) is the
suite of protocols that defines the Internet.
Originally designed for the UNIX operating system, they are now
available for every major kind of computer operating system.
TCP ensures proper delivery of Data; IP directs
Information through the Network.
Trojan is similar to a Virus.
It usually consists of an insidious program hidden in a seemingly
innocuous File, which is designed to infiltrate a computer system
and deliberately cause damage; but it cannot propagate itself.
Truncate means to shorten a word by omitting letters from the end and, when used
as a search term, effectively broadens the scope of the search.
For example, Defen, would retrieve all words beginning
with the chosen letters, such as: Defence, Defenceless, Defend,
Defendable, Defendant, Defender, Defenestration, Defense, Defensible,
Defensive. Also referred to
as Stemming. See also: Explode.
Uniform resource locator
(URL) is the standard method of allocating an address to any resource on
the Internet that is part of the World Wide Web.
is one in which the Market leader has less than 26.1% of the
total market and every other company in the market is within 1.7 times
the Market share of its nearest rival.
An unstable market is the most attractive for a new entrant
having a differentiated product.
Unstructured information refers to the content of any
Document that has no defined
or standard structure such as would allow for its convenient storage and
retrieval. Examples include
blogs, emails, images, audio and video files, and wikis.
See also: Blog,
Content management, Corporate
blog, Electronic mail,
Information management, Knowledge
Usenet is an outdated term for a worldwide system of discussion groups, with
comments passed among hundreds or thousands of machines.
The system is completely decentralised, with numerous discussion
areas, each of which is known as a Newsgroup.
A Usenet is now more commonly referred to as a
comprises all the activities an organisation needs to undertake in order
to create or add value to its products or services.
It includes design, production, marketing, delivery, and customer
support. Alternatively, a
value chain consists of a group of enterprises cooperating to
progressively add value to a product or suite of products in response to
market opportunities. See
also: Cluster, Value chain analysis, Value chain management.
Value chain analysis
is used to identify potential sources of a company's economic advantage
in its industry. The
Analysis examines the firm's major activities in order to understand
the behaviour of costs, the associated value added, and the existing and
potential sources of differentiation. Major activities are those
associated with products, services, and processes, such as
Customer relationship management
Competitive advantage is gained by performing some or all
of the activities at a lower cost or with greater levels of
differentiation than competitors.
Value chain management
involves actively managing a Value chain to achieve efficiencies
and expand capacity in order to increase Market share.
It usually results in any or all of the following: lower costs of
doing business, reduced lead times, enhanced products or services,
reduced inventory or stock holdings.
Vapourware applies to the deliberate and
premature announcement of a product before it is ready for the Market
in an attempt to discourage potential customers from considering the
purchase of similar, competitors' products.
Mainly applicable to software, it is a form of Disinformation.
Vector space modelling
is a profiling and matching technique (a form of Selective
dissemination of information) that depends upon the frequency of
occurrence of words in a sample Document.
When processed, this document forms the basis of a profile that
is then used to gather matching items.
Vector space modelling is more often employed in a scientific
context, rather than in business; the latter presenting a fuzzier
is a graphical representation of the relationships between terms
resulting from the use of Boolean operators.
These are usually depicted in the form of overlapping circles,
each of which represents a search term.
A Venn diagram may illustrate three basic conditions: the logical
product (AND operator), the logical sum (OR operator), or the logical
difference (NOT operator).
See also: Boolean logic, Nesting, Precision, Recall.
refers to equity investment in an unlisted business offered free of
collateral to an entrepreneurial enterprise having potential for high
returns over the medium to long term (two to seven years).
See also: Entrepreneur, Intrapreneur.
involves Innovation management together with some form of capital
investment, either financial or (more usually) by a combination of time,
effort, and expertise. Its
aim is to encourage entrepreneurial activity by reducing areas of
uncertainty in the establishment of an enterprise.
See also: Entrepreneur, Innovation, Intrapreneur,
Very high-performance Backbone Network Service (vBNS) is a high-performance
Network, developed by NASA and the US National Science Foundation,
designed to supplement the World Wide Web.
provides real time video and voice communication between terminals,
usually employing dedicated systems in a Conference room setting.
Video conferencing may also be accomplished by using a webcam and
personal computer, when it is usually known as Desktop conferencing.
see War gaming.
is one in which members are geographically separated but who work
together through online communications.
See also: Networking.
Virus is a small program that can be
transferred into a computer system and adversely affect the operation of
that computer. It can also be propagated by passing from computer to
computer, not unlike a biological virus, by way of networks, emails, or
on a contaminated storage device.
A virus attaches itself to an existing program and runs with that
program, causing whatever problem it is designed to introduce.
See also: Corporate security, Electronic mail, Network,
describes a desirable state that a company wishes to attain at some time
in the future. Elements of
mission and vision statements may be combined to describe a company’s
purposes, goals, aspirations, and values. See also: Corporate
culture, Meme, Mission statement, Strategy.
Visual information analysis, see
Visualisation of information is a technique
for making visual representations of the topics or ideas
contained in a body of Information, and of their relationships
with each other. It usually
takes the form of a map or other graphical depiction that can be readily
understood and manipulated.
Visualisation expands the capacity of the human mind to deal with
complex matters, enables users to extract Knowledge more
efficiently, and helps them to find insights not always obvious when
information is presented in traditional formats.
Other terms used include: Argument mapping, Concept mapping,
Content visualisation, Graphic visualisation, and Visual information
analysis. See also:
Computer graphics, Content management, Dashboard, Knowledge map, Mind
maps, Predictive analytics, Social network analysis, Sonification,
Voicemail offers a means of electronically
sending, receiving, and storing voice-based messages.
Vortal, an abbreviation of vertical portal, is a subject-specific Directory
or Database, as opposed to the more generic Portal.
Vortals are usually created by academics, researchers, experts,
government agencies and other subject specialists; hence the material is
usually of a higher quality than that found through general Search
is a process, adapted from the military, in which teams or individuals,
representing the company and its competitors, simulate a business
situation and act out the roles of decision makers in timed phases.
Comparison between the results leads to the next stage.
This continues until at least one feasible Strategy,
counter-strategy, plan of action, or solution emerges.
War gaming is very effective in industries undergoing high rates
of change. Sometimes
referred to as Competitive simulation, a Strategy game or, Virtual
competition. See also:
Business environment, Competitor, Scenario planning.
is an area set aside for use as an Intelligence or Knowledge
centre or as a demonstration room for Reverse engineering
purposes. Also referred to
as an Operations or Situation room; it may:
contain a variety of Intelligence or Market-oriented
act as an Internet/Intranet/Database/Knowledge
be equipped as a library or a repository of
allow easy and rapid access to recent Research
Web 2.0 currently lacks a precise
definition. It is true to
say, however, that although Web 2.0 need not necessarily incorporate new
technologies it is generally more interactive than hitherto, tending to
encourage increased content creation, collaboration, and learning, and
it places considerable emphasis on the user.
It is very much oriented towards social networking.
Folksonomy, Social network,
describes the anger or frustration provoked by slow Internet
is an online collection of pages (or screens) of linked Information
on the World Wide Web; usually accessed by way of a Home page.
See also: Information architecture.
Webinar (abbreviation of Web seminar) is
a presentation delivered over the Web using Videoconferencing.
Webometrics is a neologism used to describe
the application of Bibliometrics to the Analysis of Web
sites. It may be used, for
example, to measure the relative visibility of a company or
Wetware is a term applied to the human
aspects of computing. The term is also used to describe devices and
computer peripherals that have been implanted in, or grafted onto, a
What if? analysis, see
Wide area information server (WAIS) is a software package that allows the Indexing
of huge volumes of Information, and then makes those indexes
available for retrieval across the Internet, or other networks.
A prominent feature is that the search results are ranked
according to their relevance.
See also: Index, Network.
Wiki (from the Hawaiian word for
quickly) is a medium for collaboration that allows many people to
participate in the production of a long-term knowledge repository or
database, often devoted to a specific subject or field of interest.
It is based upon a relatively unstructured collection of
hyperlinked documents that may be modified or edited by any number of
authors but that also incorporates a mechanism for comparing the result
with the pre-edited version.
A wiki allows users to gather all information pertinent to a project or
activity in one central location.
See also: Blog, Collaboration software, Content management,
Corporate blog, Knowledge map, Social media, Social
is a term that covers both working conditions and the dimensions needed
to carry out a particular function.
See also: Caves
and commons, Working
refers to the physical surroundings required for human activity or
industrial processes. See
also: Caves and commons, Work spaces.
is a meeting in which the participants are the primary resource, usually
used for Planning, solving problems, or fact-finding.
See also: Colloquium, Conference, Seminar, Symposium.
(www), a component of the Internet, is a system that enables
Information (including text, audio, video, and graphics) to be
accessed anywhere on the Internet using active text links called
Hypertext. Users can
move with ease between different computer systems or information sources
on the Internet by navigating a trail of highlighted text or graphical
links on the Web pages.
Data are automatically downloaded to the Browser software
used to navigate the Web.
See also: Web site.
Worm is similar to a Virus; the difference being that it does not
contain deliberately destructive instructions (although it may cause
damage by overloading the system) and it does not require the presence
of a host. It is usually passed
over the Internet.
is the colloquial term for a Knowledge map.
(operating as Prior Knowledge)
is a leading practitioner in competitive intelligence (CI)
and knowledge management (KM).
Over the past 18 years he has
presented training programmes in Australia, Brazil, Brunei,
Hong Kong, India, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, the
Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and the United Arab
has worked with Bond, Deakin, Monash, and RMIT Universities;
the Singapore, Malaysian and Australian Institutes of
Management, the College of International Business; the
Institute for International Research; the International
Quality and Productivity Centre; the CEO Institute;
International Enterprise Singapore; the Australian Trade
Commission; the Sarawak Economic Development Corporation;
the ASEAN-EC Management Centre (Brunei); the Singapore
Ministry of Defence; Etisalat Academy (Dubai); the
Queensland Department of State Development & Innovation; the
Victorian Department of Industry, Technology and Resources,
and with many major companies (who prefer not to be
prolific author, his book, ‘Smart
company: finding and managing business intelligence’
(published in 1991 but currently out
of print), describes how to manage intelligence for
He also wrote ‘Your
guide to writing reports’,
which was adopted by the Public Service, both Commonwealth
and State, as well as by several Australian universities.
has had more than 200 articles published internationally, in
newspapers, journals, magazines, and on the Internet.
Three useful introductory
articles are as follows: ‘Introduction
to Competitive Intelligence’
Detection: Competitive Intelligence for SMEs’
Management: Getting Started’
has a post-graduate Diploma in Librarianship and Information
Science (DipLib), he is a Fellow of the Society of
Competitive Intelligence Professionals (FSCIP), a Fellow of
the Royal Society for the encouragement of the Arts,
manufactures and commerce (FRSA), and Founder of the Society
of Knowledge and Competitive Intelligence Professionals